The Learning Process
hosted by
San Diego Figure Skating Communications
a non-profit educational organization

Writing Quality Lesson Plans:

      One of the most helpful tips in writing your first lesson plans is to look at lesson plans that have already been developed to get a better idea of what needs to be in your lesson plans. The following is a guide that is intended to provide a general highlights of the key points of creating a lesson plan. 

  • Skill Level: What is the skill level you developing the lesson plan? Choose a descriptive title that properly reflects your topic.  After establishing the topic, you can begin determining what information you wish to impart and how you want to convey the information to the learner.
Every figure skating lesson plan should be aligned with USFS standards. Students should be taught what is required to prepare them for passing a specific test level and be assessed to determine if the course provides the foundation for subsequent tests. Demonstrate in the lesson plan how the objective correlates with USFS standards.
  • Objectives: Develop clear and specific objectives to insure the lesson plan will focus exactly what you want it to. The objectives should not be activities that you plan on using to teach the lesson. The objective should be the learning outcomes you hope to accomplish with the activities.
As an example, if you wanted to teach your students how to fall down correctly without getting hurt. Your primary objective is that "Each beginning student will learn how to bend their knees and ease themselves to the ice to reduce the possibility of injury".

To measure if the above objective is met, the learner will need to participate in an assessment/ evaluation. For example, the learner will be asked to demonstrate how fall correctly so the teacher can assess or measure skill development through direct observation.

There can be more than one objective in a lesson plan. Each objective needs to have a means of assessing the progress of the learner in acquiring the objective.

Broad and narrow objectives:
      To make objectives meaningful to the learner, you may want to include both broad and narrow objectives. Broad objectives are like goals and include the general of overall goal of the lesson plan such as "getting up quickly to avoid having another skater tripping over you after you have fallen. A objective would be more like the previously listed above, i.e. "Each beginning student will learn how to bend their knees and easy themselves to the ice".

      Do you need any material for the lesson? List any materials in your lesson plan. Sometimes another person may be asked to substitute for you or to use your lesson plan. Listing the materials is an essentential part of advanced planning to locate and secure required materials. Be specific about  everything required to teach the lesson. Never assume or take for granted that the desired materials will be present just because they were available for the previous week's lesson.

      In the lesson plan, define your plan to introduce the central core or concept of the lesson. In addition, describe how to stimulate and maintain the students' interest in learning what you plan on teaching. For example, tell them the student the expected outcome and why it is important for them to acquire the skill.

      It is not necessary to write a detailed script that will be used to demonstrate each and every step outlined in the objective of the lesson plan. However, you should list the relevant actions you plan on performing.

      After the procedures have been completed, provide time for independent practice. For the example of above, students could be given time to time in classes to practice the skill of falling down safely. This allows immediate positive feedback and an opportunity to clarify points if necessary. Make every attempt for students to have acquired the correct technique prior to the class ending. If necessary, assign a teacher's aid to provide extra attention to help the learner.

      Sports lesson plans need an assessment/evaluation to determine if the objectives are achieved. The key in developing any assessment is to make sure that the assessment specifically measures the objectives of the lesson plan. There must be a direct correlation between the objectives and the assessments. For example, if the objective is to learn how to center a spin, the criteria would have to define precisely what tolerance is acceptable for a spin to be considered centered - i.e. traveled <6 inches, 6 to 12 inches, 12 or more inches.

      Include a brief discussion of how this task relates to other topics. Develop thematic units that allow you to integrate related topics into your lesson plan. This repetition of topics in different classes can be very helpful in ensuring student retention of the material.

      A well written lesson plan will allow another instructor to be able to successfully step in to teach your class.

Introduction -     
      Writing a good lesson plan is a requirement for every public school teacher. They are necessary for times when you may require someone to substitute for you in the classroom because of a sudden illness or be absent for an approved activity .

      There are different methods of writing a lesson plan:

Herbartian Method

Madeline Hunter's Method
  • Preparation
  • Anticipatory Set
  • Presentation
  • Objectives
  • Association
  • Instruction
  • Generalization
  • Check for Understanding, Ask Questions
  • Application
  • Guided Practice, Modeling

  • Independent Practice

  • Closure

Sample Lesson Plans for Snowplow Sam 1-3
      Traffic flow is arranging the skaters in varying formations to teach a skill. These formations allow the skater greater access to learning the skating maneuvers.  Traffic Patterns  PDF

      There are generally accepted sections recommended for inclusion in lesson plans. However, you will find that you rarely need all the following sections on every lesson plan you write.

Forward - Ballet for Figure Skaters   "Lessons in Classical Ballet for the Figure Skater" Notebooks filled with lesson plans specifically designed for the needs of the figure skater.

Basic Information
      Each lesson plan should include the following information as a heading that includes the following:
  • Unit Name: The name of the unit (i.e. Moves In The Field)
  • Skill Level: (i.e. Pre-preliminary Moves)
  • Lesson Title: The specific title of the lesson (i.e. PPM Pattern 2 Basic Consecutive Edges)
  • Subject Area: The subject matter the lesson covers. (i.e. 4 to 6 alternating lobes using a hockey line as an axis to perform forward nd backward, outside and inside edges from a standing position.
Lesson Description: The lesson description should be a brief overview of what the lesson is about including the topic focus, activities and purpose. University of Tennessee: Lesson Plan The Educator's Reference Desk: Write a Lesson Plan Guide

Required Materials: Listing what materials you or your students will need for the lesson will help you when preparing the lesson. Ask yourself, "What materials, resources and technology do I need for the lesson?"University of Tennessee: Lesson Plan This includes textbooks, handouts, calculators, computers, printers, Internet connection, etc.

Time Estimates/Time Allotted: How many class meetings or hours do you think will be needed to complete this lesson?University of Tennessee: Lesson Plan

Safety Precautions: Describe any special concerns for safety or welfare that might arise during this lesson.UNC Wilmington: North Carolina's Six Part Lesson Plan Format

Student Products: Are there any things that the students will be creating during the lesson? Examples of products include reports, newsletters, diagrams, drawing, database, media presentation, etc. University of Tennessee: Lesson Plan

Prerequisites Skills
      The prerequisite skills or "present level of performance" section is where you list the skills the students must have in order to succeed with the lesson. University of Tennessee: Lesson Plan This should include any technological skills they will need. You should also list what concepts the students should have mastered before beginning this lesson. The Educator's Reference Desk: Write a Lesson Plan Guide For example, a student should master multiplying one-digit numbers before beginning multiplication of two-digit numbers.
Objectives, Goals and Standards
      Objectives, or goals, are arguably the most important part of any lesson plan. The objectives will help determine the aim and rationale for what your students are doing in class that day.  Objectives should be divided into two major types: long-range and short-range. 

      Here are some guidelines for writing good objectives.   Objectives should contain the:
Objectives should be measurable, specific and observable.

What is the overall purpose of the unit plan or curriculum goal?

What should the students be able to do by the end of the unit?

What should the students be able to do by the end of the lesson?

To what degree should the students be able to do the task successfully?

How will you know or be able to prove that the students have achieved the objective?

Eastern Michigan University: How to Write a Lesson Plan
Oklahoma Baptist University: Tips for Writing Objectives Lesson Plan Objectives and Goals
The Educator's Reference Desk: Write a Lesson Plan Guide

      A template can be developed to use as a guide for creating a lesson plan. Be sure to include the following topic areas in developing your lesson plans:

Key Vocabulary:

Minimum Requirements for Class:

Course Description:



Lesson Introduction:

Step-by-Step Procedure that will be followed:

Review Notes:

Homework Assignments:

Progress Assessment:

Recommended Reading:

Lesson Planning Mistakes   A list of mistakes made in writing lesson plans and an explanation of what to do about them in order to improve and communicate effectively.

Write a Lesson Plan Guide   Dec 1, 1999. Write a Lesson Plan Guide. How to Develop a Lesson Plan. We have received several questions regarding how to write a good lesson plan.

Lesson Plans - How to Write Effective Lesson Plans   Writing lesson plans does not have to be difficult. This is the time that a teacher can show their creativity. Here is a how-to on how to create effective lesson plans.


The Learning Process

Figure Skating Skill Development

Mental Training:

Principles of Sports Training:

Developing Course Materials:

Developing Training Plans


The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Course and Lesson Plans:

PDF  Trainability of Children
PDF  Trainability of Young Athletes
Course Syllabus
Writing Quality Lesson Plans
PDF  Writing Objectives

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

Athlete Concerns     Collection of Related Ideas    Skating Articles    Related Topics      

Ice Skating Rink Index    Topic Index    Site Index   Home Page