Sports Psychology
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Visualization or Mental Imagery

Visualization is Much More Than Day Dreaming
     Visualization, also known as mental imagery and rehearsal, is a training technique used by sports psychologists. Visualization is used primarily as a training tool to improve the quality of athletic movement, increase the athletes ability to focus their power of concentration, and can help to reduce the pressure on the athlete of preparing to compete while building athletic confidence.

    When athletes are able to create an image or a series of images relevant to their sport, without any external prompts or stimulation, they are able to visualize images that only they are able to mentally generate. Visual images are usually the most important to athletic training and may be employed as the sole mental training method.

    The relationship between mental and physical performance in sports is a powerful tool. An athlete who is able to develop a wide range of mental powers, such as focus and concentration, can radically improve their athletic performance. Over-analyzing or obsessively thinking about a specific issue will have a negative impact of their performance because it detracts from the athlete's ability to react instinctively. Do not confuse impulsive reactions with the positive response which is the goal of visualization.

Repetition creates neural pattern in the brain
    Repeating physical activities develops an automatic neural pattern in the brain that is a road map created by the conscious decisions required to perform the actual physical skills of the movements.  Alexander Bain, (1818–1903) of Great Britain, was the first scientist to develop a theory that the brains neural pattern is the same as diagramming the specific wiring and circuits necessary to transmit an electrical current. It is this process that the brain uses to construct such neural patterns to direct and control repeated physical movement.

    Research has demonstrated that both physical and psychological reactions in certain situations can be improved with visualization. The repetition of positive imagery can build both experience and confidence in an athlete's ability to perform certain skills both under pressure and in anticipation of a variety of possible scenarios. The most effective visualization techniques involve a powerful and high vivid sport experience in which the athlete has complete control over a successful performance and a belief in this new 'self.'

   Guided imagery, visualization, mental rehearsal or similar such techniques are very effective in maximize training efficiency. In a world where sports performance and success is measured in seconds, most athletes will use every possible training technique at hand. Visualization provides a tool to gain even a very slim margin.

Recommended Reading:

     Sports Psychology

Role of Sports Psychology

Sociology of Sports

Imagery and Simluation: Practising in Your Mind

Teaching Athletes Visualization and Mental Imagery Skills     by David Yukelson

Drenched: a clear view of Visualization (canoeing and kayaking)

The Essence of Imagery in Tennis     by John F. Murray, Ph.D.


The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Flow/Peak Performance
Focus & Concentration
Goals and Objectives
Goal Setting
Personal Sabotage
Self Fulfilling Prophecy

All materials are copy protected. 

The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

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