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Understanding Personalities -
the Traits and Characteristics

    The Type A and Type B personality theory describes two common patterns of behavior, contrasting personality types — the high-strung Type A and the easy-going Type B are the most well known types. This system of classification also divides people further into Type C and D. 

    This theory has been controversial in the scientific and medical communities since its publication, the theory has nonetheless persisted, in the form of popular psychology circles who generally lack academic credentials, yet serve as everyday sources of oversimplified information about human behavior and personality.

Type A Personality Traits 
    Type A people are individuals who are workaholic, highly stressed, extremely ambitious, and particularly rigid in their attitudes.

    The following are the characteristics of the type A personality:
  • Type A’s have got a severe sense of time urgency. They are always running and can hardly relax. If they sat without doing something useful they may end up feeling guilty.
  • Type A’s are over achievers, they usually get themselves involved in many different unrelated activities and perform well in them all.
  • Type A's biggest problem is stress, they are usually overwhelmed by the amount of tasks they have to do. These tasks are usually a huge list that they planned for themselves. The Type A person is usually competitive and has a high challenging spirit.
  • A Type A personality is prone to angry outbursts. The cause of this hostility towards people is usually due to their not meet the high expectations of the type A personality. Anger manage- ment is an important element in modifying this form of aggression and develop self control.
  • Winning is all important to the Type A personality. They will compete in all effects, no matter who it is against and what is the prize. Recognition and advancement is very important and they will push themselves to their limits to try and achieve as much as possible, as quickly as possible. However, they may feel unfulfilled as they constantly want to achieve more and more and sometimes their goals may not be realistic. Although they may appear confident, the Type A frequently suffers from self doubt. There is no permanent cure; however, improving self-confidence and self control are tasks that should be worked on everyday.
  • A Type A are adept at multitasking, but tend to be very impatient and are irritated by delays and people they consider incompetent. Everything is a rush to the Type A so they will demand people to hurry up. Type A's are unable to relax and take time out to sit quietly doing nothing. Take time to reflect and slow down your pace.
     Type A personalities need to learn to:
  • Resolve conflict effectively.
  • Acquire stress management skills.
  • Listen to others. Learn to value suggestions from others.
  • Redefine the definition of success.
  • Consider making lifestyle changes (e.g. work, exercise, diet).
  • Set realistic goals to help gain a sense of achievement.
Type A Personality Test

This test is intended to assess behavioral characteristics of the Type A Personality. The results reveal any tendency towards being a continuously stressed-out Type A, or the more laid back Type B Personality.

The test examines the response to specific statements and indicate which option best describes or applies to you. After finishing the Type A Personality test, you will receive a brief personalized interpretation of your score that includes a graph and information on the test topic from Discovery Fit and Health by Test Yourself Psychtests.

10 questions requiring 5 minutes

Type B personality traits
    Type B individuals are calm and have an easy-going attitude. They are fun loving and are relatively less competitive. They are also better at relaxing without feeling guilty and they work without getting anxious or agitated. Type B's are the opposite of type A's. They are laid back and not easily stressed. While type B can be achievers too, still they won't be as competitive as Type A's. Type B's can delay work and do it in the last moment, some of them can turn into procrastinators which is something that a type A can never do.

   The Type B personality is almost the direct opposite of Type A. The following are the characteristics of the type B personality:
  • Stress Handling The Type B people usually do not get stressed easily even under acute circumstances. They are the happy-go-lucky individuals who do not entertain stress and anxiety while doing their tasks. However, they still prove to be fairly productive. They remain carefree and cheerful most of the times and are fun to hang around with.
  • Lack Of Urgency They do not mind waiting in queues for getting their work done and do not get hyper if it takes too much time. They do not feel any sort of compulsion to meet deadlines. They have no problem relaxing or sitting without doing anything unlike Type A individuals, who end up feeling guilty if they sat without doing anything constructive. At times, Type B individuals may delay their work to the last moment due to lack of sense of time urgency.
  • Relaxed These are the people who remain calm and relaxed most of the times. They believe in taking their time to stop and smell the roses instead of running the mad rat race. They take time to think and ponder before acting. Relaxation, enjoyment and fun come very naturally to them.
  • Procrastination Type Bs may delay the work they have to the last moment and they usually don't get stressed that easily.
  • Nonassertive These individuals rarely tend to be aggressive or frustrated. Even if there's something against their will, they are not prone to lose their temper. They are more likely to handle the situation very subtly and patiently, without getting irked.
  • Socializing And Enjoying Type B personalities are normally laid back people who hold a relaxed, creative, imaginative, artistic and friendly approach towards life. They spend their free time in leisure activities like socializing, shopping or having a good time. Due to their cheerful nature, these folks are surrounded by friends and lead a good social life.
     Self help tips to change a type B personality:
  • Less Competitive Type B personalities are less competitive. They generally take their failures with a grain of salt and slough it off as merely an unpleasant experience. On the other hand, Type A individuals who are generally over-achievers, find it very hard to accept failures and end up developing low self-esteem.
  • Patience is a virtue and Type Bs are born with it. They remain calm and patient even under stressful situations and have a lot of self-control. They are less likely to get frantic about things and generally swear by the old adage of ‘Slow and steady wins the race’. They are also very tolerant and flexible and can change in order to adapt to changes. You would hardly find them complaining or lamenting about anything.
  • Emotional Bonding Their heart rules their head and hence they are very emotional and sensitive. They like expressing their feelings and are generally not indifferent towards others.
     The Jenkins Activity Survey was originally formulated to detect behaviors which lead to heart attacks (Jenkins, Ayzanski, Rosenman, 1971). Type A personality generally refers to hard workers who are often preoccupied with schedules and the speed of their performance. Type B personalities may be more creative, imaginative, and philosophical.

    Take the Personality type A/B Test. The test consists of 30 multiple-choice items.  Scores range from 35 to 380.  Type A is associated with a high score while Type B is associated with a low score. The questionnaire is a modified version of the Jenkins Activity Survey (Jenkins, Zyzanski, & Rosenman, 1971).  that has been adapted for use with college students. - source University of North Carolina at Charlotte Department of Psychology.

Type C personality traits
   Type C personality traits Written by M. Farouk Radwan, MSc. Type C personalities are not assertive by nature, They often suppress their desires and wishes instead of standing up for them. The lack of Assertiveness can result in tremendous stress and even depression over the longer term more than in other personality types. 

     The following are the characteristics of the type C personality:
  •  A trait of Type C personalities is their love for detail. They can spend a considerable amount of time trying to understand how things work.  A Type C takes life seriously and are usually hard workers to the extent that they sometimes become perfectionists who want everything to be perfectly done.
  • They may find it harder to work and play with others and are introverts in most cases. As a result of the lack of assertiveness and the desire to work alone they might prefer being on their own rather than being with other people.
  • Type C personalities also have some other positive personality traits like being dependable, having good analysis skills and brilliant minds.
     To get rid of the unwanted traits, it is necessary to able to take the full advantage of the type C personality. Self help tips to change a Type C personality:

     Work on improving your coping skills by understanding your early experiences. It is possible to change the things you don't like about your type C personality while keeping the things that you like.

     The lack of assertiveness is a problem that you must learn how to solve.

Type D personality traits
     A Type D personality is distressed, Type D's have a negative outlook towards life and are pessimistic. A small event that is not even noticed by type B can ruin type D's day. Type D personalities are more subject to depression than other personality types.

    The following are the characteristic of the type D personality:
  • A  Type D person might become socially withdrawn as a result of fear of rejection even if they like to be around people. Type D's are famous for suppressing their emotions and that makes them the most vulnerable type to depression.
  • Type D personalities usually have a low self esteem and an exaggerated fear of disapproval and this is the primary reason that prevents them from opening up to others.
  • Do not assume that type D personalities lack social interest; however they frequently might be interested in people, but are afraid to approach them because they fear rejection.
  • Negative emotions such as worry, stress, depression, and anger frequently affect type D personalities. A small event that is usually overlooked by others can bother a type D a lot and even ruin his mood.

   Self help tips to change a Type D personality:

  • Learn how to control your emotions: Almost everyone can control his/her emotions even a Type D.
  • Control your thoughts: Learning how to control your thoughts can preventing negative thoughts from being triggered or attempting to control emotions. Read this guide to know how to control your thoughts.
  • Get over fear of rejection: The fear of rejection is caused by low self esteem. The fear of rejection results from the belief that others hold he/she to be less worthy than they are. If you are a Type D personality then improving your self esteem is the essential step you must take to heal yourself.
  • Learn to open up: After dealing with the fear of rejection, a person needs to work on opening up to others.
Our Behavior and Actions
      Autocratic domination, bullying, insensitivity, over control, intimidation, bullying, or self-serving practices masquerade as a form of management, but in reality are actually forms of harassment by individual who are in a position of power and authority. 

     There is one basic principle that applies to our behavior and actions: Some people do things for their own reasons that usually do not involve making any effort to win our approval. Other people see things differently which causes them to respond/react to situations in a way that they think is necessary to achieve the best reward for their efforts.

     People who are not motivated will generate a halfhearted effort that at best produces marginal results and in worst cases creates frustration, resentment, rebellious behavior, and power struggles. A good manager is sensitive to and works hard to significantly reduce the amount of friction, tension, dissent, stress, and upset of people on his team. The reward for preventing potential misunderstandings, miscommunication, and conflict is the development of a sense of pride in the work they perform.

Our Personality Affects our Behavior 
There are differences between physical and behavioral traits and characteristics -
Traits Characteristics
Hair Color
Brown, Black, Red, or Blond
Curly, Kinky, or Straight

      The are two basic aspects of our behavioral traits and characteristics:
  • Inherited behavior (traits)
  • Learned behavior (characteristics)
      When we combine them, they form what is commonly referred to as a type of personality with a significant difference between the two aspects:
  • Traits can't be changed because they are neurological hardwired and thus fixed,
  • Characteristics can be changed as they are acquired through external influences and experiences.

Behavioral Traits
      Traits are responsible for how our brain develops and functions in gathering data, processing information, and making decisions. Traits can help to determine the choices we make and how act on our decisions.

      People interact and communicate with us based on our behavior towards them and our patterns of behavior in general defines how they will deal with us. Traits influence how we learn and what if any value we place on utilize our intuition. Our traits can define our perception of what constitutes trouble. Consequently, they influence our problem solving preferences and the solutions we create.

     In addition, behavior traits are responsible for:

  • Our core value system, the principles, and basic beliefs that form our code of conduct that in turn is responsible for our behavior.
  • Developing and expressing natural talents.
  • Filters our internal and external perceptions of our surroundings.
  • Our emotional reactions and rational responses to experiences and situations,
  • What motivates and irritates us.
  • Our choice of the people we are attracted to others which we avoid.

Behavioral Characteristics
       Behavior characteristics refers to behavior we acquire through our perceptions of opinions, criticisms, and social expectations held by other people. This becomes the basic foundation of our learned habits, attitudes, and comfort zones that impact the totality of our life.

      Motivation is the principle force behind the development of the characteristics that make our behavior acceptable and allows us to become part of a social structure. These behaviors are sometimes based on false perceptions of ourselves, our potential, and what we are capable of achieving.

      After repeated exposure to untrue comments, about your abilities and potential, will cause you to accept this misinformation as being truthful. Over time this creates limitations and programs us to become insecure about our capabilities. The result is that you are likely to will avoid in engaging in any activities that might expose these insecurities.

Behavioral  Patterns
      Behavioral patterns are developed as a result of our characteristics. Mental barriers and insecurities become stronger with the passage of time so it becomes more difficult to reverse or overcome them. As a result we may be unable to partially or fully develop our natural talents and strengths. Our characteristics are responsible for:

  • Overriding our decision making preferences and replacing them with preferences of other people reasons rather than our own.
  • Accepting the status quo and not changing limiting and unhealthy situations, relationships, jobs, and lifestyles because we feel it is expected of us.
  • Suppressing our individuality and uniqueness.
  • Our following the path of least resistance rather that facing up to tough choices.
  • Creating and fueling our fears and insecurities.
  • Behaving in certain ways society considered acceptable for our gender.
  • Spending time accepting responsibilities for performing tasks that do not match our personality traits.

    As you seek to understand more about personality, there are important factors to keep in mind:

  • People have a strong desire to fit in. Like a chameleon, an individual will take on behavior that provides the illusion that is perceived to be the acceptable behavior norm despite not confirming with their personality boundaries.
  • We tend to judge people based on our first impressions. However, that can be very misleading and may not reflect the true nature of their personalities.
  • There is a natural tendency to compare other people�s behavior to our own in an effort to determine if their personality is compatible with ours.

      An individual's observable behavior does not provide a full image of our personality qualities. Many are hidden below the surface we project to individuals outside of the family or peer group. To completely appreciate a person, it is necessary to have the opportunity to spend enough time with new acquaintances to discover their natural talents. It is important to remember that an initial misreading can result in your making a negative impression. At some future occasion, you might discover that they will be responsible for making important decisions about you - hiring, admission to school, judging you at a sporting event, welcoming you into a family unit, etc.

      It is the differences in people that provide the strength to compensate for their weaknesses. It is the variations in people that offers a truly great opportunity to assemble a dynamic team of self-motivated people whose collaborative efforts are much better than one individual could achieve.

Recommended Reading:

Understanding Personalities Can Lead to Better Performance  Personality types can help us understand why people make decisions - and sometimes clash.

The Ultimate guide to Getting over depression, mood swings & bad moods  Links that deal with everyday generic problems that confront athletes and non-athletes.

Traits of Human Consciousness Endowments of human character, or simply character or personality traits. They are grouped within the categories of an individual's (1) attitudes, (2) miscellaneous attributes, (3) social endowments, and (4) skills. Each trait is shown in two ways; how it manifests in a positive way in a person, and how it manifests negatively in a person.

The Big Five Personality Traits in Psychology  Jan. 16, 2007 ... Your Big Five Personality Traits affect your health, relationships, goals, ...  understand your frustrations.

Emotional Competency - Personality Traits  Personality traits are intrinsic differences that once were thought to remain the same since childhood. Now, experts believe the Big Five Personality Traits change over time.

A List of Personality Traits to Help Parents Understand ...  As parents we often observe certain personality traits, but without guidance it may be difficult to articulate these traits, or even identify them specifically.

Discover Yourself  Personality Inventory. This assessment will help you better understand your personality traits and their strength.



The Sports Environment

Developing Personality Traits and Character Traits


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