Knowledge & Skills
Advances in technology depends on the ability to recall
and apply knowledge and skills learned in one context to another. The
transfer of learning depends on the quality of learning in first
context to produce a positive transfer. A negative learning experience
will result in a negative transfer. To the degree that a "Near
Transfer" may occur is related to how closely the context and
performances are related. The effectiveness of a "Far Transfer"
declines as the separation of the contexts and performances increases
A Skill Set
A skill set is the
combination of abilities that connect to a
particular job. One person may possess many skills in many areas.
However, he or she may be good in a few areas, average in most and have
poor skills in some areas.
There are three types of skill
Transferable skills are
skills gained through previous project, jobs, etc.
Personal skills are
skills that come naturally to
some, but they can also be learned. Examples of these skills are
honesty, punctuality and being team-oriented.
Work related tasks are
specific skills required to perform a particular task that is
Transference of Knowledge &
It is possible to tranfer positive or
negative knowledge (learning) and skill performence to another learning
process. The positive transfer of training from
practice/training sessions to an actual competition situation is
crucial for athletic success. This
principle should serve as a guide for selecting off-ice training
activities for developing on-ice skills. The concept also helps in
designing strategies that have a positive
impact in competitive situations.
Coaching Benefits of the
Coaches can benefit from knowing how to
Select appropriate fitness training activities to build
necessary balance of fitness components necessary for specific sports.
Select training drills and activities that, collectively,
possess common elements with competitive sport conditions.
Distinguish between what features of skills are being
strengthened by certain training activities, and which features are
Train movement concepts and perceptions that apply to more
than one skill, event, or sport.
Emphasize training activities that best develop the
qualities that athletes need to excel.
Most closely match training activities with competition.
Coaching Tips to Match
Coaching tips about the transfer of
motor skills are
found at Transfer
Coaching tips for applying this principle to match training activities
with the demands of sports are presented here.
- Sport analysis. Consider the overall demands of the
sport of figure skating.
What does it take to be outstanding? Physical, emotional, and mental
demands contribute to being successful. Training should emphasize
supporting the most important qualities that skaters at all skill
levels should develop.
- Skill analysis. Identify the key skills necessary
success. Perform fitness and agility tests to help focus on the areas
where athletes need improvement, and select training activities to
- Practice vs. competitive conditions. Always consider
the differences between practice activities and competitive conditions.
Beyond building the fundamentals, devise training activities and
conditions that most closely match the emotional intensity that the
expect to encounter in test and competitive situations.
- Mechanics. Understand the most efficient movements
that underlay the mastery of highly skilled motor performances.
Correcting movement deviations and
inefficient patterns in practice is essential, even for such basic
skills as stroking, skating on edges, and especially in performing
- Movement qualities. Develop the timing and rhythms
of skills can greatly assist the athlete in acquiring the
mechanical/motor skills. Training activities that incorporate rhythms
and sequences used in competition will speed the development of
automatic muscle/nerve memory responses.
- Identify cause and effects. Coaches sometimes
develop training activities to correct symptoms of motor skill errors
they observe when athletes compete. Training should focus on correcting
the causes of
mental as well as physical errors.
- Physical capability. Athletes
sometimes have limited capabilities of executing skills due to
a lack of strength, power, or other fitness deficiencies or abilities.
Coaches who can identify those limitations can
better create practice activities and exercises designed to correct or
mitigate core problems.
the Knowledge Transfer Problem
A central issue in acquiring knowledge is its appropriate transfer
beyond the contexts and contents of first acquisition. In contrast to
dominant "common elements" transfer theory, an inrerpretive perspective
is developed, according to which "appropriate transfer" is a concept
socioculturally rather than objectively defined.
Skill Acquisition Review
of research conducted in the past ten years on cognitive skill
acquisition. It covers the initial stages of acquiring a single
principle or rule, the initial stages of acquiring a collection of
interacting pieces of knowledge, and the final stages of acquiring a
skill, wherein practice causes increases in speed and accuracy.
- PDF EFF
Research Principle: A Contextualized Approach
Research on the transfer of learning. teachers
starts with real-life contexts and is weaved into all stages of every
teaching and learning process. Instruction and assessment are aimed
directly at the skills and knowledge adults need to perform tasks they
have identified as important and meaningful to them. The focus is on
the application rather than on the possession of basic skills and
Volume 1(2): January, 1996. SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING.
This edition of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned
with the Principle of Specificity.
- Specificity | Fitness and Health Nov 28,
2006 ... Specificity states that your training should move from general
to highly specific training. It also dictates that in order to improve
a particular skill.
Focusing on Specificity Training
Focusing on Specificity Training ·.Written by NFPT Staff Writer
Friday, 03 February 2012 00:00. The
personal trainer will encounter athletes of all stripes.
of Sports Training:
Key Sports Training Principles Guide Sound Coaching
Sports training principles offer general coaching guidelines for making
training ... The Transfer Principle provides guidance on how training
activities can speed improvement.
of Training Principles for Instruction
Training. Principles for Instructional. Design. Richard E. Clark.
Alexander Voogel. Richard E. Clark is Professor of Educational
Nov. 1, 2000 Transfer of Training —
magical link between classroom and something which is supposed to
happen in the real world. It helps the learners to become accustomed to
using their newly acquired
knowledge and skills in different situations, thus encouraging transfer
learning to the intended target/objective of the training goals. There
are two main principles that work with transfer of learning:
- The variation should not be too easy.
- The shift or transfer should be progressive but rapid.
The following internet
links have been
gleaned from personal communications
public institutions and athletic
have a web presence with information concerning team
materials are copy protected.
The limited use of the
materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given
for the source of the materials.