The Learning Process
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Transference of Training

An Important Concept is Transferring Training to the next Generation of Learning
Most parents do not fully understand, that starting immediately after birth, it is essential for their new baby to acquire and then master specific physical and mental skills. Babies who develop according to years of experience allows the pediatrician of family doctor to compare their physical weight and height as am indication their development is progressing at a normal rate.

        The transfer of training deals with applying the knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes that were learned to a new task or environment. It is only logical to design the structure of learning to proceed in an orderly process of introducing the skills, knowledge, and/or attitudes so that once they are learned, they are available to apply to another learning situation. Maximizing this concept increases the efficiency and effectiveness of the training while reducing the amount of time required learn and master skills or subject matter.  This is simply a classic application of "Don't Reinvent The Wheel".

Transfer can be both positive and negative
        The way learning one skill is presented can affect learning another skill. After learning a skill, it is necessary to regularly performing in order to retain it. The motivation of the learner is directly affected by their positive of negative attitude resulting from the experience. This will definitely determine their receptiveness in attempting to acquire subsequent new skills.

Positive Transfer - occurs when the two skills in question are similar in some way. Having already mastered one of the skills, the acquisition of the second skill should be both easier and occur more quickly. It is important to stress the similarities between the two skills and that the basics of the first skill are so well mastered that they transfer to the second skill without conflict.

Negative Transfer - occurs when the technical foundations of a skill conflicts with learning of the second skill. This more often happens when the concept of how both skills should be performed is presented in a way that is very different. This can occur when two different instructors approach to teaching the skills conflict.  This situation is very confusing to the learner and requires making sure the athlete is aware of the differences and stressing why it is necessary to adopt your concept as part of a broad training program.

Acquistion of skills
       Transfer of skills can work forfwards and backwards. For example:

Proactive Transfer - A skill learnt in the past affects a skill currently being taught

Retroactive Transfer - Learning a new skill affects a previously learned skill.

Stimulus Generalization - The transfer of previously learned skills to a new situation can sometimes be generalized when a specific response to another situation would cause a problem. For example, kicking a football with a holder and a the kicker dropping the ball that is kicked because the rules require two different methods. 

Response Generalization -  When a performer has well learned a skill they can begin to adapt the skill to vary it. An example is the pitcher in baseball can alter their gripe on the ball and their arm motion to affect the speed and flight of the ball (curve, slider, etc.)

Six categories of skill transfer are recognized:

  1. Transfer between skills - closely associated sport - short and long distance running
  2. Practice to performance - transferring skills from practice to a competitive environment
  3. Abilities linked to skills - balance and cordination when turning and changing directions
  4. Limb to limb (bilateral) - equal abilities of the leeft and right side of the body
  5. Principle to skill - the principles of offensive and defensive play
  6. Stages of learning - skills that are acquired in the cognitive phase form the basis for an associative phase of training

Ideal Learning Environment
        The concepts of delivery elements and content types provide a wider platform for building learning programs. Listed below are five other considerations that are covered in detail at ISD at Warp Speed.

        There are four learning design architectures:

  • Receptive: absorbing information
  • Directive: frequent responses coupled with feedback (behavioral roots)
  • Guided Discovery: active constructive process mediated by problem solving
  • Exploratory: finding and processing information

       These four architectures help expedite the learning process through various experiences:

  • Absorbing (read, hear, feel)
  • Doing (activity)
  • Interacting (socialize)
  • Reflecting

      The principal methods for presenting instructional content include:

  • Deductive: having the learners work from general information to examples
  • Inductive: giving the learners examples to abstract

      Two effective approaches that help students to learn:

  • Inquisitory: having the learners find examples or general information
  • Expository: explicitly giving examples and general information

      The combination of these design considerations, allow the construction of a type of media described as a Learning Framework. When developing the plan for a learning program, think of a broader framework than being a delivery system for content. It is extremely important to demonstrate the relevance of applying  the concepts beyond what is presented in the course.  In the real world there will not be a teacher to consult with. Result assured that the boss will expect results that work and the responsibility for a misdirected conclusion might be a career ending mistake. 

      As a designer of a learning program, it is imperative to start by thinking of the context the the materials will be presented first, followed by how the components support this goal.

      There is a high rate of skill transfer between general physical skills; however, as we develop acquire higher level physical skills are usually marginal. The more dissimilar the physical skill, the less likely there is any transfer that occurs.

      The principle of training transfer should be applied to optimize exercise sessions:
  • When developing a training plan it is necessary to identify similarities in movement, perceptual, and conceptual elements between off-ice exercises, previously learned skills, and new skills that will positively transfer to figure skating disciplines.
  • There is a high degree of transfer between figure skating training activities and competitive conditions.
  • The discipline of school figures provided skaters with the fundamental skills that were the foundation for free skating, compulsory dances, and later Moves in the Field (MITF).
  • Development of gross motor skills in off-ice exercises transfers can transfer directly to jumps - i.e. the vertical jump is a key element of improving jumps in figure skating.
  • Specific elements in previously learned skating skills can be the basis for learning of new skating skills with similar qualities. For example, Basic edge and body control of simple turns can be applied to more difficult turns.
  • Weight training exercises that match the skater's fitness demands. The objective must always remain to enhance the skater's body movements on the ice, not to become a body builder or competitive weight lifter.
  • Coaches need to identify and Target key features of practice skills and conditions that are critical in maximizing the transfer of training to competition.  The greater the similarity of two skills, the greater the degree of transferability.
Recommended Reading:

Transfer of Learning Nov. 1, 2000 ... Transfer of training is effectively and continuing applying the knowledge, skills, and/or attitudes that were learned in a learning environment to another.

Games approach helps tennis players transfer skills learned in practice to matches   Coaches create scenarios on the tennis court in which players have to use their technical skills in match/game situations, forcing them to make decisions that simulate the choices they will have to make in a match. These skills, called tactical skills, are the bridge between practice performance and match performance. Although the proper execution of technical skills is necessary for success, the tactical skills (i.e., the ability to make the appropriate decisions) are the key to having everything come together when it counts - in the match.

Defining and Classifying Skill in Sport   Motor skills form the basis of all sports. Transfer of skills - The learning of one skill may help in the learning of another skill, sometimes in a different activity.

Transferable Skills  The most commonly cited transferable skills for athletes are:  1. The ability to perform. 2, To achieve an efficient transfer of skills from sport to work.

University of Georgia Mental Toughness Program  Transferability of skills from athletic arena to everyday life. Appreciation for the specialized needs of student athletes, coaches, and teams.

Commitment to Academics - Auburn University Student Athlete  This course provides freshmen & transfer student athletes with a variety of Life Skills components necessary to maximize their educational success

Tutors : Home Instructors : Private Tutoring  We have tutors in all academic subjects like Math, English, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, History, and we tutor at your home or online tutoring.

Scripps College : Scripps College Tutoring Program  The Dean of Students office sponsors a peer based Tutoring Program that ... offering a network of qualified tutors in a wide range of academic subjects at no extra ... and set up a mutually convenient time and location for your tutorial sessions. ...

FAQ - Tutoring Center - Fullerton College Academic Support Center  After you fill out the Tutoring Request Form, the process of finding a qualified tutor begins. Most of the time we can help you find a tutor for any subject.

Tutor Hunt - Private Tutors & Personal Tutors For Home Tuition  The Tutor Hunt network helps both tutors and students find each other. Search by level, subject and location, create your own tutor or student profile for free.

Prioritize an Athletes Education

Academic Tutoring

Physical and Mental Training Considerations


The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Fitness Training Considerations
Kirkpatrick's Evaluating Training Programs
Skating Training Environment
Training Figure Skaters
Group Classes
Fitness Training
Personal Training Plan
Daily Training Plan
Seasonal Training
Training for Junior & Senior Athletes
Age Guidelines for Training
Developing a Plan for Training
Developing Skating Skills
Group Training Stages
Training Priorities
Strategies of Sports Training
Training Task Analysis
Value of Annual Planning
Competitive Training Strategies
Verbal and Nonverbal Communications
PDF  Core Body Training
PDF  Endurance Training Plan
All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

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