gross and fine motor skills
The Transfer Principle
Benefits to Coaches and
The Transfer Principle suggests that
learning and performing gross and fine motor
skill can positively or negatively effect the learning process of
another. A positive transfer of training from
skills used in practice to their use in competition is critical for
athletic success. This
principle should serve as a guide for selecting off-ice training
activities for developing on-ice skills. The concept also helps in
designing strategies that have a positive
impact in competitive situations.
Coaches can benefit from knowing how to apply the
Elements to Skills Necessary to Compete
Select appropriate fitness training activities to build
necessary balance of fitness components necessary for specific sports.
Select training drills and activities that, collectively,
possess common elements with competitive sport conditions.
Distinguish between what features of skills are being
strengthened by certain training activities, and which features are
Train movement concepts and perceptions that apply to more
than one skill, event, or sport.
Emphasize training activities that best develop the
qualities that athletes need to excel.
Most closely match
training activities with competition.
Tips about the transfer of motor skills are
found at Transfer
Coaching tips must apply the concept of matching training activities
with the demands of sports if maximizing results are to be
- Sport analysis. Consider the overall demands of the
sport of figure skating.
What does it take to be outstanding? Physical, emotional, and mental
demands contribute to being successful. Training should emphasize
supporting the most important qualities that skaters at all skill
levels should develop.
- Skill analysis. Identify the key skills necessary
success. Perform fitness and agility tests to help focus on the areas
where athletes need improvement, and select training activities to
- Practice vs. competitive conditions. Always consider
the differences between practice activities and competitive conditions.
Beyond building the fundamentals, devise training activities and
conditions that most closely match the emotional intensity that the
expect to encounter in test and competitive situations.
- Mechanics. Understand the most efficient movements
that underlay the mastery of highly skilled motor performances.
Correcting movement deviations and
inefficient patterns in practice is essential, even for such basic
skills as stroking, skating on edges, and especially in performing
- Movement qualities. Develop the timing and rhythms
of skills can greatly assist the athlete in acquiring the
mechanical/motor skills. Training activities that incorporate rhythms
and sequences used in competition will speed the development of
automatic muscle/nerve memory responses.
- Identify cause and effects. Coaches sometimes
develop training activities to correct symptoms of motor skill errors
they observe when athletes compete. Training should focus on correcting
the causes of
mental as well as physical errors.
Positive or Negatively Affects
of Skill Specialization
- Physical capability. Athletes
sometimes have limited capabilities of executing skills due to
a lack of strength, power, or other fitness deficiencies or abilities.
Coaches who can identify those limitations can
better create practice activities and exercises designed to correct or
mitigate core problems.
Learning or regularly
performing a skill can affect, either positively or negatively, the
learning of a second skill.
generally occurs when the two skills are similar in some way. Thus
having previously mastered one of the skills, learning the second skill
should be much easier. Coaches can be a positive force in insuring that
the athlete understands the similarities between the two skills
and there by stressing the importance of acquiring the basics of the
first skill so that
they transfer more easily into the second skill.
occurs when having acquired one skill, it posses a barrier (obstacle)
to learning the second skill. This can happen when a stimulus common to
skills requires a different response. Negative transfer can be avoided
athlete is made aware of the differences and the practice sessions
are tailored similar to simulate situations that only require one
Six categories of skill transfer
have been identified:
- Transfer between skills
- such as all racket sports
transferring skills learnt in training to a competitive environment
- Abilities linked to skills
- balance to perform a good landing in gymnastics
- Limb to limb
(bilateral) - striking a football with the right or left foot
- Principle to skill
- the principles of defensive play in rugby are similar to football
- Stages of learning
- skills that are learnt in the cognitive
phase will then be built upon in the associative phase.
the Knowledge Transfer Problem
A central issue in acquiring knowledge is its appropriate transfer
beyond the contexts and contents of first acquisition. In contrast to
dominant "common elements" transfer theory, an interpretive perspective
is developed, according to which "appropriate transfer" is a concept
socioculturally rather than objectively defined.
Skill Acquisition Review
of research conducted in the past ten years on cognitive skill
acquisition. It covers the initial stages of acquiring a single
principle or rule, the initial stages of acquiring a collection of
interacting pieces of knowledge, and the final stages of acquiring a
skill, wherein practice causes increases in speed and accuracy.
- PDF EFF
Research Principle: A Contextualized Approach
Research on the transfer of learning. teachers
starts with real-life contexts and is weaved into all stages of every
teaching and learning process. Instruction and assessment are aimed
directly at the skills and knowledge adults need to perform tasks they
have identified as important and meaningful to them. The focus is on
the application rather than on the possession of basic skills and
Volume 1(2): January, 1996. SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING.
This edition of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned
with the Principle of Specificity.
- Specificity | Fitness and Health
Nov. 28, 2006 ... Specificity states that your training should move
general to highly specific training. It also dictates that in order to
improve a particular skill.
Focusing on Specificity Training
Focusing on Specificity Training Written by NFPT Staff Writer
Friday, 03 February 2012 00:00. The
personal trainer will encounter athletes of all stripes.
Key Sports Training Principles Guide Sound Coaching
Sports training principles offer general coaching guidelines for making
training ... The Transfer Principle provides guidance on how training
activities can speed improvement.
of Training Principles for Instruction
Training. Principles for Instructional. Design. Richard E. Clark.
Alexander Voogel. Richard E. Clark is Professor of Educational
Nov. 1, 2000 ... Transfer of
Training — That almost
magical link between classroom and something which is supposed to
happen in the real world. It helps the learners to become accustomed to
using their newly acquired
knowledge and skills in different situations, thus encouraging transfer
learning to the intended target/objective of the training goals. There
are two main principles that work with transfer of learning:
of Interval Training | Interval Training Sessions
- The variation should not be too easy.
- The shift or transfer should be progressive but rapid.
training these principles are used to prepare the body for work in
specific energy transfer systems relevant to the particular sport.
The following internet
links have been
gleaned from personal communications
public institutions and athletic
have a web presence with information concerning team
materials are copy protected.
The limited use of the
materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given
for the source of the materials.