The Learning Process
 
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Training Transfer

Transfer of Knowledge
      Transfer of training can occur from one academic discipline to another is the cornerstone of our educational system. Broad, general concepts and data, such as  vocabulary and math, form the basic foundation from which specialization occurs. This systematic connection of ideas and thoughts provides a means of crossing from one discipline to another without having to start over from the beginning.  Some refer to this as eliminating the necessity to "reinvent the wheel" and allows form the ability to combine aspects of one discipline with another in amazing ways and results in a "break through" from the resulting stimulus of new ideas.

Transfer of Learning
      The application of skills, knowledge, and/or attitudes acquired in one situation can be utilized to another learning situation. This increases the speed of learning and helps to stimulate rapid progress that would otherwise not occur if the learner was just occupying space in a classroom and possibly causing a disruption due to their boredom.

       Instructors, trainers, coaches, and presenters often fail to realize the importance of varying the task within the learning environment. Apply the concept or task to a variety of situations to enhance and speed up the learning process compared to limiting the exercise to only one example. Learners to become accustomed to applying newly acquired concepts, knowledge, and skills to other situations which is very handy in solve problems in real world situations.

       The process of transfer can be best illustrated by typical multitasking associated with computer skills.

       When first exposed to the concept of variation is introduced some learners may experience some confusion that creates a slowing down of their normal learning curve. As previously acquired skills and knowledge begin to be utilized, the process of unimpeded learning should return. The more practice that occurs in transferring newly acquired skills and knowledge, the less trouble will be experienced when attempting to transferring existing acquired skills to other learning/work environments.

Variation in Training Produces Positive Results
        Information providers need to introduce as many variations in their presentations and the conditions/environment that the training occurs. There are two main principles that work with transfer of learning:
  1. The variation should be challenging, but too difficulty as to discourage learning
  2. The shift or transfer should occur with a minimum of distractions
  3. The progressive of tasks should achieve a complete transfer with any delays or interruptions

        Many courses are designed to present distinct modules. For example introductory computer classes often use a syllabus similar to this:

  • Introductory module
  • Word Processing module
  • Spreadsheet module
  • Database module

        A more effective concept has been the integration of multiple modules that can demonstration how the concepts being presented would actually be utilized in a real world environment. This can be accomplished by combining the three software programs and discussing how utilizing them together takes advantage of their features across open files of each application. For example - editing which includes copying, pasting, deleting, saving, etc.

       Some computer users describe this approach as multi-tasking. This is an essential part of achieving a effective and productive use of the technology.

Instructional System Design Concept Map

   

Source - The Performance Juxtaposition Site

Ideal Learning Environment

        The concepts of delivery elements and content types provide a wider platform for building learning programs. Listed below are five other considerations that are covered in detail at ISD at Warp Speed.

        There are four learning design architectures:

  • Receptive: absorbing information
  • Directive: frequent responses coupled with feedback (behavioral roots)
  • Guided Discovery: active constructive process mediated by problem solving
  • Exploratory: finding and processing information

       These four architectures help expedite the learning process through various experiences:

  • Absorbing (read, hear, feel)
  • Doing (activity)
  • Interacting (socialize)
  • Reflecting

      The principal methods for presenting instructional content include:

  • Deductive: having the learners work from general information to examples
  • Inductive: giving the learners examples to abstract

      Two effective approaches that help students to learn:

  • Inquisitory: having the learners find examples or general information
  • Expository: explicitly giving examples and general information

      The combination of these design considerations, allow the construction of a type of media described as a Learning Framework. When developing the plan for a learning program, think of a broader framework than being a delivery system for content. It is extremely important to demonstrate the relevance of applying  the concepts beyond what is presented in the course.  In the real world there will not be a teacher to consult with. Result assured that the boss will expect results that work and the responsibility for a misdirected conclusion might be a career ending mistake. 

      As a designer of a learning program, it is imperative to start by thinking of the context the the materials will be presented first, followed by how the components support this goal.

Learning Framework

Source - The Performance Juxtaposition Site

      There is a high rate of skill transfer between general physical skills; however, as we develop acquire higher level physical skills are usually marginal. The more dissimilar the physical skill, the less likely there is any transfer that occurs.

      The principle of training transfer should be applied to optimize exercise sessions:
  • When developing a training plan it is necessary to identify similarities in movement, perceptual, and conceptual elements between off-ice exercises, previously learned skills, and new skills that will positively transfer to figure skating disciplines.
  • There is a high degree of transfer between figure skating training activities and competitive conditions.
  • The discipline of school figures provided skaters with the fundamental skills that were the foundation for free skating, compulsory dances, and later Moves in the Field (MITF).
  • Development of gross motor skills in off-ice exercises transfers can transfer directly to jumps - i.e. the vertical jump is a key element of improving jumps in figure skating.
  • Specific elements in previously learned skating skills can be the basis for learning of new skating skills with similar qualities. For example, Basic edge and body control of simple turns can be applied to more difficult turns.
  • Weight training exercises that match the skater's fitness demands. The objective must always remain to enhance the skater's body movements on the ice, not to become a body builder or competitive weight lifter.
  • Coaches need to identify and Target key features of practice skills and conditions that are critical in maximizing the transfer of training to competition.  The greater the similarity of two skills, the greater the degree of transferability.
References:
     
Games approach helps tennis players transfer skills learned in practice to matches   Coaches create scenarios on the tennis court in which players have to use their technical skills in match/game situations, forcing them to make decisions that simulate the choices they will have to make in a match. These skills, called tactical skills, are the bridge between practice performance and match performance. Although the proper execution of technical skills is necessary for success, the tactical skills (i.e., the ability to make the appropriate decisions) are the key to having everything come together when it counts - in the match.

Defining and Classifying Skill in Sport   Motor skills form the basis of all sports. Transfer of skills - The learning of one skill may help in the learning of another skill, sometimes in a different activity.

Transferable Skills  The most commonly cited transferable skills for athletes are:  1. The ability to perform. 2, To achieve an efficient transfer of skills from sport to work.

University of Georgia Mental Toughness Program  Transferability of skills from athletic arena to everyday life. Appreciation for the specialized needs of student athletes, coaches, and teams.

Commitment to Academics - Auburn University Student Athlete  This course provides freshmen & transfer student athletes with a variety of Life Skills components necessary to maximize their educational success

Tutors : Home Instructors : Private Tutoring  We have tutors in all academic subjects like Math, English, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, History, and we tutor at your home or online tutoring.

Scripps College : Scripps College Tutoring Program  The Dean of Students office sponsors a peer based Tutoring Program that ... offering a network of qualified tutors in a wide range of academic subjects at no extra ... and set up a mutually convenient time and location for your tutorial sessions. ...

FAQ - Tutoring Center - Fullerton College Academic Support Center  After you fill out the Tutoring Request Form, the process of finding a qualified tutor begins. Most of the time we can help you find a tutor for any subject.

Tutor Hunt - Private Tutors & Personal Tutors For Home Tuition  The Tutor Hunt network helps both tutors and students find each other. Search by level, subject and location, create your own tutor or student profile for free.

Prioritize an Athletes Education

Academic Tutoring

Resources:

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
   
     
  
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