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Training Tasks Analysis
Analysis of Training Tasks
       A task analysis is sometimes called an operations analysis. It is a process of systemically collecting information about what the learners need to know to perform a specific task(s), what and how they should be taught, plus the resources they need to perform at their optimal level.

       In the planning model below, the steps are:
  • First Step - The Analysis phase determines the "needs" or "objective".
  • Second Step - Identifies the actions required to achieve the "objective".
  • Third Step - Specify the various learning and training tools.
  • Fourth Step - Motivate the individuals and fund the necessary training.
       A Performance Analysis determines the cause(s) of what prevents an individual from achieving their objectives and then develops a plan to reach the desired objective.

Performance Analysis

Kirkpatrick's 4
levels of Evaluations

Needs of the Sport
What is the objective
Needs of the Coach
Steps to achieve objective
 Needs of the Parents
What will help the learning process
Needs of the individual
What will motivate the learners
What Drives Performance?

       The effectiveness of a task analysis is increased by focusing on what drives a performance. Depending on the activity various internal and external forces can be manipulated for better or worse. To understand the dynamics, focus on any positive, neutral, and negative factors:
  • Individuals
    • Skills, knowledge, expectations, information
    • Motivations

  • Culture Background
    • Environment
    • Incentives
      The Task Analysis defines the training by clearly identifying the process and/or steps to perform each and every task that supports the objective. It is important that the designer of the training focuses their concerns on the individual needs of the learners while placing emphasis on providing them with the motivation to understand and appreciate the importance of the training.

       This part of a training plan that is most difficult to define and describe either in theory and even more difficulty to convince an athlete to put into practice. However, this information may provide the key information to the coach and trainer as to what is working and what has not worked so changes can be made from one competitive season to the next,

       Training volume calculations may meet the criteria and the purposes of the training plan, yet only the practical real life conditions can validate the concept.

       A search of training literature yields an outline of goals based on the following generalizations:
  • Follow an intense practice session with a less intense session.
  • Follow an overload activity with a recovery activity.
  • Allow sufficient time for recovery between workouts.
  • Avoid training that stresses the same energy system(s) on successive days.
  • Avoid training that stresses the same mental system(s) on successive days.
  • Approximately 50% of training time should be recovery activity.
  • Avoid dehydration. If that is not possible, re-hydrate as soon as possible.
  • Eat sufficient calories in a balanced diet.
       The general thrust of every training plan may vary according to the emphasis and intensity of implementing specific points. The role of each athlete's diary of Daily Training Tasks (DDT) is to record the actual accomplishments that allows a coach to note and review any deviations from the planned training emphasis.
       In a DTT diary, the user can use a printed list of scheduled daily activities for the training stage or phase. Details of the table's list should include such tasks as intensity, scheduled training time scheduled, and the actual time of the training that occurred. Allow room for comments. Similar lists of Mental, Technical, Tactical and Physical training tasks should be incorporated in the DTT diary.

       Each coach/trainer can work with the individual to modify the planned training tasks to accommodate  school, work, and family obligations.

       A diary of DTT allows the calculation of the minutes per week that should be spent on each aspect of training. These will be ideal, or targeted training times. As the athlete fills out the planning part of the DTT, they may need to add or delete training activities due to conflicts that occur for specific time slots for each day.  It is important to remain flexible and not cause unnecessary stress if it not possible to be i two places at the same time.

       Ideally the information from the DDT logs should be transferred to a computer spreadsheet to keep a running total of each aspect. With newer technology it might become a real time database. This information provides the athlete and coach with an opportunity to compare the targeted times of the plan as training tasks are added to the weekly schedule. It is up to the athlete to allocate or schedule activities throughout the training week (micro cycle) using the general guidelines given above.


Task Analysis Tools: Various Approaches for Analyzing Tasks Feb. 21, 1999 ... In a traditional needs analysis, the analyst generates a list of tasks ... The tasks to be trained are then observed and are broken into task steps.

Task Analysis  Jobs can best be understood as a series of tasks. A task is an action designed to contribute a specified end result to the accomplishment of an objective. It has an identifiable beginning and end that is a measurable component of the duties and responsibilities of a specific job. Although each job has a title, the actually work that is expected of that job can vary widely. Tasks are the means of describing a job in detail.
Then, if any of the tasks requires training, rather it be formal, on-the-job, job aids, etc., then a second analysis needs to be performed to outline the training objectives.

Developing A Training Plan


The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Fitness Training Considerations
Kirkpatrick's Evaluating Training Programs
Skating Training Environment
Training Figure Skaters
Group Classes
Fitness Training
Personal Training Plan
Daily Training Plan
Seasonal Training
Training for Junior & Senior Athletes
Age Guidelines for Training
Developing a Plan for Training
Developing Skating Skills
Group Training Stages
Training Priorities
Strategies of Sports Training
Training Task Analysis
Value of Annual Planning
Competitive Training Strategies
Verbal and Nonverbal Communications
PDF  Core Body Training
PDF  Endurance Training Plan

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

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