The Learning Process
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Student Learning Outcomes

Measuring the progress of students requires a method to evaluate what they learned in class
       A learning outcome is the knowledge, skill or behavior that is expected when a learners has completed a study unit.

       Measuring a learning outcome typically requires the administering of an assessment test. Thus is widely used at the city, county, state, regional, national and international levels. Academic policy is formulated by people with academic credentials and elected law makers who decide what the purpose of the assessment is, what population will be assessed, what is to be assessed, how it is to be assessed, and how the measures are to be reported and utilized. Policy makers decide on domains and grade levels to focus on while others will focus on the measurement of student knowledge.

       There is evidence that these policy makers are shifting their attention from inputs to outcomes. In other words, the emphasis is greatly concerned about what learners should have learned at the end of a course or grade.

       There is a significant educational concern about have much money is being spent on such issues on educating our children, Topics being discussed include teacher education, teacher and classified salaries and benefits, construction of physical facilities and the maintenance /operating expenses. School boards of city, county, state, and federal budgets don't have the funding to provide the funding to insure a consistent plan to stimulate learning in the classroom.

       Parents and taxpayers are clamoring to assess the cost benefit effectiveness of existing funding. Eliminating or curtailing classes that are offered depends on the validity of learning assessments and if the evidence supports or rejects the reality - does the learning outcome reflect the stated goals and objectives of national education systems? What factors are associated with increasing student achievement?

      To effectively evaluate learning, the tool that is used should be appropriate to the outcome being measured. Answering multiple-choice questions is not an authentic measure of the student’s actual critical thinking ability.

      The gathering of information must be combined with classroom feedback if the teacher wants to improve the lesson the next time it is presented. If feedback demonstrated that amount of learning was not satisfactorily, adjustments must immediately occur until the information is fully commuicated to each student. Given that there will be a variation in the time each student requires to absorb/comprehend the information, there also will be a difference in the time to apply what they learned to their envoronment.

       What intervention might you consider to allow the slowest individual to stay involved in the class?
  • Private tutoring
  • Class assistants
  • Creation of CD's with stop motion video demonstrations
       Multiple steps are involved in measuring Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs):
  • Create a chart of steps that measure student learning outcomes.
  • Specify the measuring tool.
  • Establish performance standards for each objective.
  • Identify observable factors for assessing which level of performance has been achieved on each objective.
  • Conduct measurements during the same time of day to assure acceptable inter-rater reliability.
  • Set benchmarks for successful student, course, program, or degree outcomes, including milestones to gradually move from current performance levels to the benchmark goal.
  • Evaluate student performance, assemble the data, and report the results.
  • Summarize how to effectively use the results to improve learning and self-awareness.
What learning outcomes are possible to measure in athlete performances?
What are measurable indicators of creative expression? It is a challenge for those who teach in the creative arts, but they are able to make these determinations on a regular basis.  Some students can parate back information on a quiz but are unable to apply the information to real world problems.

      Each course syllabus should include Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs) that describe the knowledge, skills, and abilities students can expect to attain during the course. Measurement tools usually include:
  • Written research papers
  • Quizzes
  • Mid term test
  • Final test
      A syllabus may include what projects may be performed for extra credit.

      Every Course SLOs should be related to the Program SLOs that is described in the approved Learning Program or Learning Plan. For clarifications, review the following links:

Components Expected for all Syllabi
Sample Syllabus
Quick Guide to Syllabus Construction
Sample of a Statement on Classroom Behavior
Rubric for Self-Evaluation of a Syllabus

Writing a Course Syllabus Must Include Clear and Concise Concepts for Measuring Improvement
      Such measurements will demonstrate if how well the students have met the stated outcomes of the syllabus.

      Student learning outcomes (SLOs) specify what students will know, be able to do or be able to demonstrate upon completing in a program/activity/course/project. Outcomes are usually expressed as knowledge, skills, attitudes or values.

      A good SLO will specify an action by the student that is observable, measurable, and/or able to be demonstrated!

What skills are students learning? Are these the skills we want them to learn?
Are these the skills we are teaching them?)

      Assessing an SLO will:
  1. Help in understand how to better facilitate learning.
  2. Provide feedback that assists in providing services that provide student satisfaction.
  3. Enable students to articulate what they are learning and have been able to apply outside of the classroom.
  4. Help students in the explaination what they are able to do and what they know.
       Getting Started by listing:
  1. The most important things a student should know, be able to do, or demonstrate after completing the class or course.
  2. Benefits of utilizing office hours?
  3. <>Try to write these ideas as SLO statements.   Pay careful attention to the verbs you use in your SLOs.
  4. Make outcomes as specific and focused. Avoid generalization of the outcomes that they will be hard to measure!
  5. SLOs that measure of what students have learned from any assessment of student satisfaction, program evaluation, and attendance.
Good Learning Outcomes Should be Focused
         Statements that are focused will describe what the learner will know or be able to do by the end of a defined period of time and indicate how that knowledge or skill will be demonstrated.  For example:
  • Upon completing this assignment, students will be able to provide accurate diagrams of cells and be able to classify cells from microscopic images.
  • By the end of this course, students will be able to identify and develop data collection instruments and measures for planning and conducting sociological research.
  • By the end of this workshop, participants will be able to identify and classify their spending habits and prepare a personal budget.
       Always use relevant, active verbs such as in the following examples:

By the end of this course, students will be able to:
  • predict the appearance and motion of visible celestial objects
  • formulate scientific questions about the motion of visible celestial objects
  • plan ways to model and/or simulate an answer to the questions chosen
  • select and integrate information from various sources, including electronic and print resources, community resources, and personally collected data, to answer the questions chosen
  • communicate scientific ideas, procedures, results, and conclusions using appropriate SI units, language, and formats
  • describe, evaluate, and communicate the impact of research and other accomplishments in space technology on our understanding of scientific theories and principles and on other fields of endeavour [Adapted from]
Source -  University of Toronto

Universities and colleges require a syllabus for all courses.
       When the institution prepares for an accreditation review, course syllabuses are reviewed and revised. The following is a discussion of why a detailed syllabus is beneficial to students and instructors.

      Group ice skating classes and team activities such as Synchronized Skating, Showcase ensembles, and Theater on Ice Teams should have a prepared syllabus and Goals and Objectives that are given to skater at the beginning of the skating season or group classes. Coaches should develop Lesson Plans for all of the activities their are involved in to allow another qualified individual to fill in for them in case of an illness, personal emergency or personal time off.

      There are two site specific approaches to communicating course materials:

  • Brick and Mortar.
  • <>
  • Distance Learning.
      Classes can be delivered by two principle methods:
  • Linear- predefined by intructor
  • Knowledge Index self directed choices by interest/importance to learner,
  • Be specific - Specify specific details about upcoming assignments, readings, grading policies, attendance, course goals and other information and expectations. The instructor or presenter may provide additional details later, but the syllabus allows the student to prepare for the start of the first class. In addition, students may lookup the materials that were covered when it is impossible to attend a class.
  • Maintain a Friendly Tone - A syllabus should clearly lay out policy in a friendly tone that makes students more comfortable prior to starting the first class.
  • Present the syllabus to students in advance of the first day of class - Post the syllabus online. Provide an e-mail address if a student/parents should wish to discuss the syllabus. Even though your policies are carefully stated, they may need clarification, and students appreciate your openness in discussing the rationale behind them. In some cases their questions may lead to a beneficial exchange about course goals and philosophies.
  • Announce Changes by E-Mail - If for some reason, a date or other item in the syllabus must be changed, you should send a general e-mail message to your students so that they have a "written" record, as well as announcing it in class. Some instructor develop a web page exclusively for the course that they use as an official site and update frequently. The materials covered in each class are posted for the semester.  Prepared notes can be posted after each class session.
Recommended Reading:

Instructional Design:

Training Principles:

Principles of Sports Training:

Developing Course Materials:

Developing Training Plans

What are the goals and objectives?

What will is the subject content (message)?

What teaching methods and technology (media) will be used?

How will learners be assessed?

How will a course or lesson's instructional design be evaluated and improved?

Writing Student Learning Outcomes for Course Syllabi   Provides guidelines for writing student learning outcomes and describes the relation between course SLOs and program SLOs.


Student learning outcomes statements  Student learning outcomes statements clearly state the expected knowledge, skills, attitudes, competencies, and habits of mind that students are expected to have achieved.

PDF Student Learning Outcomes Assessment Handbook
Student Learning Outcomes (SLO) Assessment Handbook. Montgomery .... categorized into two main types: Student Learning Outcomes (SLO) and Student Assessment.

Team Sports Syllabus  The purpose of this course is to provide learning experiences that will lead to the development of basic skills in team sports.

Soc. of Sport Syllabus Longest - UNC  The organization of the sports we play and the sports we love is a reflection of the ... What role does sport play in the creation of adolescent culture?

Syllabus   This course examines sports using the sociological perspective. The course will focus upon important, enduring issues within the sociology of sport.

Sports Officiating Syllabus   Sports Officiating is a three hour credit Health & Human Performance course meeting once a week. This course will provide the student with the knowledge and ...

First Aid Sample Syllabus   A consideration of first aid practices to the injured; designed to lead to Red Cross certification in first aid.

Weight Training Sample Syllabus

Ice Skating I Sample Syllabus   Fundamentals of balance, movement, and safety on the ice; forward, backward, and stopping. Guidance in choice, use and care of equipment. 2 lab hours arr. Open only to beginners. This course is graded.

Ice Skating II Sample Syllabus   Elementary skating with emphasis on correct technique for basic skills. 2 lab hours arr. Perquisites: 162.01 or ability to skate forward, backward, and stop with no balance problems.

Ice Skating III Sample Syllabus  Power skating: designed for persons having had more than 30 hours on ice and who can execute the basic strokes (including back crossovers) with correct techniques. 4 lab hours. Prerequisite: 162.02 or 162.04 or equiv. skill level.

Sample Syllabus 163.01    Lectures: survey of figure skating includes history, types of competition, judging, recreational, and show skating. Lab: introduction to free skating, compulsory figures, and dance skating.  1 cl, 3 lab hours. Prerequisite: 162.03 or permission of instructor.

Sample Syllabus 163.02  Intermediate and advanced freestyle; intermediate: all single jumps, basic spins, and advanced footwork; advanced: jump combinations, spin combinations, and double jumps.
3 lab hours arr. Perquisite: 163.01 or permission of instructor.

164.01 Ice Hockey I Sample Syllabus  Introductory skills and techniques of ice hockey Prerequisites: 162.02 or equiv. Open only to beginners.

164.03 Ice Hockey II Sample Syllabus  Intermediate to advanced play. Perquisite: 164.01 or previous playing experience.

Instructional Design Models and Components   Several models of instructional design exist. One of the most famous is Dick and Carey's Model for designing instruction.

Instructional Design Models - University of Windsor   Models for instructional design provide procedural frameworks for the ... how combinations of instructional strategy components should be integrated to produce a course of instruction.

There are five eLearning Components that are essential for all successful online courses. Understanding these components will help you design and develop a course that meets computer based training objectives.

Dick and Carey's Instructional Design Model

Kemp's Model Intructional Design Model

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Instructional Design
PDF  Writing Objectives Instructional Design Models
Instructional Design Components
Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs)
Evaluating Learning Outcomes

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

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