The Learning Process
 
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Stages of Learning

Models of Learning Stages   
       Athletes experience stages or phases of learning as they progress through skills are similar to the learning of academic topics that a teacher outlines in a classroom lesson plan

       School teachers must spend several weeks of each new school year reviewing information that was covered the previous spring before the start of the summer vacation. This is necessary because the students did not complete the conversion of short term memory into long term permanent memory prior to their summer vacation.

       Each fall it is essential that each teacher develop a skill assessment in various subject areas (reading, vocabulary, writing, math, etc.) to serve as a baseline to evaluate student progress throughout the school year.

       Coaches should perform an evaluation prior to developing a training plan for each skater prior to the start of a new competitive season. An awareness of the skater's skill level will provide the skater, parent, and coach with a timetable to achieve specific test and competition goals.

       Several models are used describe these learning stages. There is no definitive point at which an athlete transitions from any phase to the next level, but a detailed description of the skills helps remind coaches of where athletes are and which tasks/activities they should be able to accomplish if they fulfill an agreed upon training plan.

       A three-stage model acquiring the idea/concept, progressing from the basic fundamental skill to a stage of refining the skill, and finally an automatic response stage.

    The following stages/key points represent a 3-stage approach:

1. The Mental Stage: 

This stage is sometimes referred to as the cognitive or verbal motor stage. A learner begins the process of understand how to perform the basic task.

Beginners are not always aware of what they did wrong, nor do they know how to correct errors. They need basic, specific instruction and feedback during this phase.

2. The Associative Stage: 

At this stage the skater understands the fundamental processes of the skill and begins perfecting the skill. Fewer errors are experienced and can the skaters should be able to self detect the errors. Execution is becoming more consistent.

The skater understands what is needed to accomplish the skill objective. They also begin to learn how to react to an external situation (an open skill) like missing a required element in a program.

3. The Autonomous Stage:


At this stage the skill level of the skater should be automatic without having to focus on skill execution. The skater makes very few errors. In practices, they should be able to detect errors and understand how to correct them. This allows them to concentrate on learning other tasks.

Coaches can concentrate on preparing the skater for competition conditions. For open skills, the coach must systematically vary the conditions under which the skill is performed in preparation for unexpected occurrences in a competition situation.

References:


Kolb's learning styles, experiential learning   Various factors influence a person's preferred style: notably in his experiential learning theory model (ELT) Kolb defined three stages.

3 Stages of Learning    Table of Contents. 3 Stages of Learning · Cognitive Stage ·  PPT Slide · Performance Changes across the Learning Stages.

Experiential Learning Cycles   Take a fresh critical look at cyclical learning models and explore the ... Despite the currency of 3 stage learning cycles in development training,

Grow The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model   Students can learn collaboratively at any stage, but students who are ready for Stage 3 learning can accomplish far more together.

Learning and Memory   Nov. 1, 2000. Learning and Memory. Hence, the present theory of three storage areas. Information Processing Model: map of the flow of memory.

Stages of Motor Learning - Autonomous Stage  This stage is characterized by a nearly automatic kind of learning. Feedback serves a primary role of providing instruction.

Fine Motor Skill Development
   Fine motor skills are our ability to use our fingers, hands, and arms together to reach, grasp, manipulate small objects such as forks, spoons, crayons and scissors.  Through the process of coordinating Fine Motor Skills integrated with our abilities enable us to learn complex skills such as tying a shoe lace, fastening buttons, eating with a fork & knife, and printing, handwriting, typing, etc.

Resources:

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Program Development
Athlete Development
Skill Development
How We Learn
Stages of Learning
Parent-Teen Relationships
Youth Development
Stages of Skill Development
Stages of Figure Skating Skill Development
Long Term Athlete Development Framework
Techniques of Sports Skills
Biomechanics
Principles of Motor Skill Mechanics
Newton's Laws of Motion
Athlete Training Principles
Being Successful in Sports
Age Appropriate Sports Training
Effect of Learning Environment
Essential Feedback

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