The Learning Process
 
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Stages of Figure Skating
Skill Development


Stages of Acquiring Physical and Mental Skills
       Figure skating requires different types of physical and mental skills to be successful. All athletes acquire such skills at different rates depending on their personality, natural abilities plus the availability quality coaching, practice sessions exclusively for training in the specific discipline.

       Most skaters can acquire the ability to perform the basic edges, stroking, crossovers, and turns providing they focus on developing these skills rather than spending too much effort on attempting to acquire free skating skills. It is a common situation with beginning skaters who aspire to learn to free skate while dismissing the need to developing their basic skating skills concurrently with efforts to jump and spin.

Figure skating’s Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD) model consists of six stages.

  • Learn to Skate (M 3-9, F 3-8) – Covers Active Start and FUNdamentals by providing opportunities for all Canadians to learn to skate in fun, safe and engaging environments.
  • Learn to Train (M 8-12, F 7-11) – Builds a skill set that will allow children to reach the highest level of proficiency that their unique talent and commitment will allow.
  • Learn to Compete (M 10-14, F 9-13) – Exposes athletes to greater performance and competition opportunities, with the competition focused on performance and not solely on results.
  • Train to Compete (M 11-17, F 10-16) – Emphasizes the pursuit of excellence at the national level through refinement and consolidation of skills.
  • Learn/Live to Win (M 14-21, F 13-19 – 15+) – Ensures athletes are fully prepared (physically, mentally, technically and strategically) with the confidence and attitude that they can win at the highest levels of international competition.
  • Active for Life (M, F any age) – Provides the opportunity for lifelong participation in skating, in either a competitive or recreational capacity.
Source of LTAD - Skate Canada

Canadian Skating Development Programs

  • In Pursuit of Personal Excellence: Skate Canada’s Guide to LTAD

  • This model defines the optimal training, competition and recovery programs necessary to succeed in the sport of figure skating.

  • CanSkate is Skate Canada's flagship Learn to Skate program. It addresses the Active Start, FUNdamentals and Active for Life stages, and is designed for beginners of all ages. CanSkate programs focus on fun, participation and basic skill development.

  • CanPowerSkate, focusing on the Learn to Skate stage, is an action-packed, high energy instructional power skating program geared toward hockey and ringette skaters. It focuses on balance, power, agility, speed and endurance.

  • STARSkate consists of Skills, Tests, Achievement and Recognition, and centers on the Learn to Train stage. It offers opportunities for skaters of all ages to develop fundamental figure skating skills in the areas of ice dance, skating skills, free skate and interpretive skating.

  • The CompetitiveSkate Test Program addresses the Learn to Compete, Train to Compete and Learn/Live to Win stages. It is a testing program for skaters in singles, pairs and dance who wish to compete in qualifying events within Skate Canada.

  • CollegiateSkate centers on Active for Life. Schools are getting into the competitive spirit through the CollegiateSkate program, which brings together skaters from different test and/or competitive backgrounds to skate together as a team representing their school.

  • AdultSkate covers Active for Life. Adult skating is growing in popularity and more clubs are offering recreational, test and competitive opportunities to this segment of the population.

       The elimination of school figures in the competive Ladies and Men Single skating events, free skating has taken on an entirely new development of multi-revolution jumps, contorted spin positions, and required footwork sequences.

       Skaters who excel in jumping have more assertive, positive personalities. They will attempt to imitate other skaters on practice sessions if not introduced to good jumping techniques in group classes or private lessons.

Anthropometry of Figure Skating    There are certainly some body builds which are more suited for skating than others. Also, due to differences in body size, strength, and power, there are technical differences in the expected degrees of jump difficult in ladies' programs  compared to men's programs.   

The Florida State University   Values such as independence and assertiveness become more obvious. .... the idea that female ice skaters cannot jump as high as male athletes or the .... analyzes the rhetoric surrounding women's figure skating.

The Basis for Training...  which increases their self esteem and reflects a strong personality.

       Spinning is a skill that some skaters have difficulty acquiring because they lack the ability to compensate for dizziness caused by their middle ear.

Vertigo  is a false sensation of moving or spinning or of objects moving or spinning, usually accompanied by nausea or lack of loss of balance.

Inner Ear/Balance Nerve Causes of Vertigo  There are many symptoms - lightheadedness, imbalance, and a spinning sensation - that are all commonly referred to as dizziness, but each can arise from completely different causes.

Why don't figure skaters get dizzy?    Spinning may cause dizziness: at the beginning of the spin, when the skaters are not yet used to the sensation, and at the end, when they must get reacclimated to no longer rotating.

How to Spin Without Losing Your Lunch

       Step sequences and transitions, between required free skating elements, are essential in the develop- ment of a well balanced free skating program.

     The communication within and between specialized areas of the brain is known as functional integration. Sensory integration is necessary for every activity that we perform because the combination of multiple sensory inputs is essential for us to comprehend our surroundings.

PDF Figure Skating Programs and Development  Figure Skating Programs and Development/ Pipeline of Figure Skating. U.S. Figure Skating Basic Skills Program: the FUNdamentals. Offering 12 Basic Skill badges and USFS tests in all figure skating disciplines.

Skate Canada - Development - Programs - STARSkate  STARSkate offers opportunities for skaters of all ages to develop fundamental figure skating skills in the areas of ice dance, skating skills, free skate, pairs, and synchronized skating.

Welcome to the Trenton Figure Skating Club  STARSkate offers opportunities to Trenton Figure Skating Club, Box 21003, Pharma Plus, 109 Dundas St, Trenton. ON Canada.develop figure skating skills in four different areas.

Basic Skills - Welcome to US Figure Skating  Developed by U.S. Figure Skating and approved by the Professional Skaters Association (PSA), the Basic Skills Program is open to anyone interested. A small fee is required to become a Basic Skills member.

Skating in the Schools - Welcome to US Figure Skating  An exciting, new skating program created by U.S. Figure Skating for use by the educational community, "Skating in the Schools" fosters a link between schools, the fun and fitness of skating and the local rink. A guide relating skating skill development to educational theory.

Basic Skills Parents - Welcome to US Figure Skating  Learning skills and mastering those skills is an important part of child development.

PDF Figure Skating Programs and Development/  Basic Figure Skating Programs and Development/Pipeline of Figure Skating. U.S. Figure SkatingSkills Program. Bridge Program/Junior Club.
  
Recommended Reading:
  
Training Considerations
   
   
References:
  • Fundamental motor skill development   The fundamental skill phase of development begins in early childhood at about two to three years, and individuals have the potential to be fully proficient in most of them by about six years.
     Fundamental motor skills (i.e. hopping, jumping, skipping, kicking, throwing, catching etc.) are prerequisites to learning of sport specific skills (basketball, football, gymnastics, tennis, badminton, etc.).  Sport specific skills are comprised of fundamental skills. It is very difficult to obtain proficiency in sport skills unless the prerequisite fundamental skills are present.  A person's gross motor skill development depends on both their muscle tone and strength.
  • Gross Motor Skill Development  Gross motor skills are defined as the movements of the large muscles of the body that involve such essential activities such as walking and sitting upright, plus sports related skills such as kicking, lifting, throwing a ball, etc..
     There are five senses that are commonly discussed: sight, hearing, taste, touch, and smell. One overlooked sense, known as proprioception and kinesthesia, is the sensation of joint motion and acceleration that provides the sensory feedback mechanisms for motor control and posture. This sense allows the brain to unconsciously keep the body oriented and balanced while sending out immediate and unconscious adjustments to the muscles and joints in order to achieve movement and balance.

     A great amount of training in motor activities relies on enhancing propreception activities.  Proprioception input comes from sensory receptors or nerves inside the body rather than on the skin's surface.

     Learning any new motor skill involves training our body's proprioceptive sense which involves our ability to move our arms or legs in a precise way without looking at them.  Proprioception is so automatic that our conscious mind barely notices it. Thus it does not receive the attention it deserves in a training program; however, the ability can be trained, as can any other motor activity.

     Gross motor skills include:

  1. balance – the ability to maintain equilibrium
  2. body awareness – for improved posture and control
  3. crossing of the mid-line
  4. laterality – awareness of the left and right sides of the body
  5. major muscle coordination
  6. spatial orientation – awareness of the body position in space and in relation to other objects or people
  • Fine Motor Skill Development   skills are our ability to use our fingers, hands, and arms together to reach, grasp, manipulate small objects such as forks, spoons, crayons and scissors.  Through the process of coordinating Fine Motor Skills integrated with our abilities enable us to learn complex skills such as tying a shoe lace, fastening buttons, eating with a fork & knife, and printing, handwriting, typing, etc.
  • Sensory Integration  deals with how the brain processes multiple sensory modality inputs into usable functional outputs. It is believed that inputs from different sensory organs are processed in different areas in the brain. However, different regions of the brain may not be solely responsible for only one sensory modality, but could use multiple inputs to perceive what the body senses about its environment.

Resources:

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a
web presence with concerning team and individual sports programs:
 
Program Development
Athlete Development
Skill Development
How We Learn
Stages of Learning
Parent-Teen Relationships
Youth Development
Stages of Skill Development
Stages of Figure Skating Skill Development
Long Term Athlete Development Framework
Techniques of Sports Skills
Biomechanics
Principles of Motor Skill Mechanics
Newton's Laws of Motion
Athlete Training Principles
Being Successful in Sports
Age Appropriate Sports Training
Effect of Learning Environment
Essential Feedback
  
 

   

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