The Learning Process
San Diego Figure Skating Communications
Stabilizing the Core Body
What is a Gyroscope?
In sports, there is
a human quality (agility) that some individuals seem to naturally
possess and others must acquire through extensive training and
practice. This article will discuss what can be observed. For example,
in figure skating the object is to convert forward or backward progress
into a circular motion. The skater who can stabilize the spin so it
does not travel across the ice is said to have centered the spin. It is
the internal gyroscope that is our center of balance to sends signals
from the fluid of middle ear to the mind if the spinning positions
diverts from balanced axis and signals a shift of the center is
occurring causing a wobble and loss of balance is called "traveling".
This is the same action that is observed in spinning a coin or a child's "Top". As the object loses its speed, the center of balance shifts resulting it spinning out of control and ultimately falling over. Toy gyroscopes can perform all sorts of interesting tricks. They can resist motion about the spin axis in very odd ways; but the most interesting effect is called precession. If you have a spinning gyroscope and you try to rotate its spin axis, the gyroscope will instead try to rotate about an axis at right angles to your force axis.
In Figure 1, the gyroscope is spinning on its axis. In Figure 2, a force is
applied to try to rotate the spin axis. In figure 3, the gyroscope is reacting
to the input force along an axis perpendicular to the input force.
Source - HowStuffWorks
One major difference between the inanimate object and a human is that fact that our mind can make adjustments that can regain/stabilize the spinning rotation. There is a secondary observable action that is gyroscopic - a controlled exit from the spin shuts down the rotational direction and allows the skater to transition to a linear movement without being dizzy.
An excellent ideal of angular momentium and torque can be seen in a bicycle rider change directions and maintaining or recovering their balance.
If you lean left, you turn left
This is a good visual example of the directions of the angular momenta and torques, but the gyroscopic torques of bicycle wheels are apparently quite small (see Lowell and McKell). The gyroscopically motivated descriptions like "leaning left turns it left" are more appropriate to motorcycles. With a bicycle at low speeds, the main turning influence comes from the turning of the handlebars.
In terms of the
stability of the bicycle when riding, the
association with leaning and turning does hold true. The construction
of a bicycle is such that a left lean does cause the front wheel to
turn left, contributing a kind of self-stability to the bicycle. If you
feel youself unbalanced and leaning left, then turning left does help
you correct the imbalance because the centrifugal
associated with the turn does tend to push the top of the bicycle back
toward the vertical.
Part of the process of learning to ride a bicyle would then seem to be the learning of how to turn the front wheel to produce the needed centrifugal balancing force to bring you back to an upright and balanced orientation. More drastic turns are needed at low speeds to get the necessary centrifugal force which depends upon the inverse of the radius of curvature. Much more gentle turns are sufficient at higher speeds since the centrifugal force depends upon the square of the velocity.
Training for Stability and
To perform balance skills, skaters must have adequate strength to support the body, and they must be able to shift the weight quickly into the correct position at the right time.
A skater must instinctively know their position in space (kinesthetic awareness) in order to perform quick turns with complete coordination, agility, and flexibility. See Fitness Components
The goal of coaches is to develop their students core body positions as this enhances their ability to acquire and master figure skating skills. The following is a partial list of objectives coaches emphasize:
Core Stability Exercise Principles
By Akuthota, Venu; Ferreiro, Andrea; Moore, Tamara; Fredericson, Michael
- Core stability is essential for proper load
balance within the spine,
pelvis, and kinetic chain. The core is the group of trunk
muscles that surround the spine and abdominal viscera. Abdominal,
gluteal, hip girdle, paraspinal, and other muscles work in concert to
provide spinal stability. Core stability and its motor control have
been shown to be imperative for initiation of functional limb
movements, as needed in athletics.
Sports medicine practitioners use
core strengthening techniques to improve performance and prevent
injury. Core strengthening, often called lumbar stabilization, also has
been used as a therapeutic exercise treatment regimen for low back pain
conditions. This article summarizes the anatomy of the core, the
progression of core strengthening, the available evidence for its
theoretical construct, and its efficacy in musculoskeletal conditions.
Core Stability Exercise Principles Core stability is essential for proper load balance within the spine, pelvis, and kinetic chain. Broad benefits of core stabilization have been achieved in collegiate basketball and track athletes.
Basic Principles Underlying Krate Techniques All parts of the body must harmonize to provide the stability necessary to sustain the shock. Thus, balance is of prime importance. Also, the rhythm evident in the movements of athletes
Importance of Balance and Stability to Mastery of Sport Skills The ability to control one’s physical self is a major issue for athletes. They must control their sports skills and execute them properly, despite numerous obstacles that are very physical in nature.
Body Balance Unable and often unwilling to take time off of training, most athletes trained through their injuries. In these situations, their bodies made compensatory movements, which not only aggravated the original injury, but also stressed other parts of the body and lead to further injuries. The bottom line was clear: injuries became chronic, and greatly impaired the athletes ability to perform their activity to their potential.
Balance Training and Proprioception Proprioception is that of the human kinesthetic senses, the related notions of muscle memory and hand-eye coordination. The kinesthetic sense is similar to proprioception, in that it is an internal mechanism, but distinct by virtue of the role of proprioception in coordinating joint motion and acceleration.
Biomechanical Principles and Applications Examples of Rotation Principles. Seven Principles of Biomechanical Analysis.
How Can Biomechanical Principles Help Us Jan. 14, 2009 ... There are seven biomechanical principles that can help us analyze skating skills: ... of support and the greater the mass, the more stability increases.
Connecting Steps The Figure Skating / Ballet Relationship Does ballet really enhance the skater's performance or on-ice technique? The “skating experts” say Changements: Same jumping principles as sautés. Pas de Bourre: For ankle stability and agile footwork.
Back Stability-2nd Edition Establishing Stability Chapter 5. Posture Optimal Postural Alignment Postural Stability and Body Sway Basic Postural Assessment.
Core Body Strength Training Agility, coordination and balance (stability) all come from the core of the body . ... In skating, it is important to strive for proper body ... Choose a variety of exercises and mix them up. © U.S. Figure Skating. Page 3. Overload Training Principle.
Physical and Mental Training Considerations
The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
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