San Diego Figure Skating Communications
Sports Training StagesAll Sports Share a Commonality in training Stages
There are several training models coaches use. The number of learning stages and their description vary; however, the point at which an athlete transitions from one phase to the next is difficult to measure as they can be a considerable variation it their development level for different activities.
Cognitive Stage occurs when the beginning athlete is attempting to understand what the basic task involves. Beginners rarely are aware of what they are doing that is incorrect, nor do they know how to correct errors. This phase requires simple, basic, and specific instruction and immediate feedback.The Learning Curve
Understanding the Fundamentals At this stage the athlete has a good grasp of the skills fundamentals and is starting to refine the skill. They should be experiencing fewer forced errors and are starting to be able to detect some of them on their own. Performances are more consistent. The learner is beginning to know precisely what the coach expects.
Autonomous Stage At this stage the skill is being performs automatically without having to think about or focus on its execution. There are fewer errors and the athlete can detect and correct them.
As athletes transition from learning the goal of the skill to perfecting it, coaches can begin to increase the complexity of the instruction and add strength, speed/power, and endurance to practice conditions.
Some practice sessions are highly structured with all athletes essentially working on similar goals. Other practices can be structured to match the conditions of competition. Practices for open skills generally have restrictions by skill development groups of athletes. The practice conditions require the skills being practices are not in conflict with the other athletes.
There are distinctive emotional and intellectual growth stages that affect an individual's ability to acquire and refine gross and fine motor/nerve skills. It is also possible to track, monitor, and assess psychomotor skills. There are three stages through which skills develop to the point of mastery:
There are a number of different types of skills we use consciously or subconsciously on a daily basis:
Observation over a period of time, allows a coach or trainer to acquire visual feedback of an athlete's movements. The contrast been visual references is most apparent to someone who does not observe the subject on a daily basis.
Digital video technology allows a collection of observations to be made on a side-by-side screen comparison to be made to a model illustrating the ideal technical movement. Slow motion video capture is frequently used to achieve a completely objective analysis of all physical skills, especially those that may be be so apparent when performed in real time. The use of video also allows athletes to be able to perform an self evaluation of their own performance.
Schmidt's Schema theory proposes that every time a movement is performed, the individual to store information in memory of the following four occurrences:
The theory, first advanced in 1971, has two key neural components:
The subject matter expert attempts to communicate/transfer his/her knowledge and expertise through the following ways:
The effects of transfer can vary depending on relevance of the information and the individuals ability to assimilate and apply the concepts in a different situation:
Consequences of training and the lack of training
Every child begins at birth to expand their awareness of their environment. Each individual who comes into contact with a new born and developing infant contribute to the child's perception of their environment, including positive and/or negative interactions.
How does the lack of ability, or low motivation factor into list of possible of low, poor, or under performance causes? How is the problem dealt with? It is natural to tend to want a quick fix to resolve the problem. Would a training course help? Or should the individual be encourage to change directions by seeking other opportunities to devote his/her energies and ambitions?
Performance is a function of two factors:
Minor performance deficiencies/difficulties can be reversed through appropriate training. However, major performance deficiencies/difficulties require considerable time and financial resources to "reinvent" the individual to the degree that they could have achieved if the correct technical and performance training had been in place earlier in development of their basis skills.
Unfortunately when an individual has been promoted to another grade, skill level, or position - the demands can be too demanding for them to be successful. When transitioning from one position or level to another, the new opportunity may lack the technical, intellectual, or emotional support to allow them to meet the higher expected performance requirements.
Poor performance can be related to "luck", negative energy, illness, or depression caused by death or illness. However, in most cases a poor performance is related to the lack of training an/or low or poor motivation. It is possible to create a positive motivating environment. There are three key interventions that may improve motivation:
The first step to create a Performance Improvement Plan (PIP) is to first need to identify and evaluate the performance issue(s) that the individual is experiencing:
Any actions needed to close ability gaps require a high level of motivation on
the part of participants to be successful. The lack of ability and low motivation
are the basic causes that are inextricably intertwined in causing poor perform-
ance. Goal setting, feedback, and a positive supportive environment are require-
ments/conditions for improving both root causes.
The Effects of Training on Users' Performance The Effects of Training Methods on Users' Performance: A comparison of users capabilities using these methods.
PDF The Impact of Facilities on Training Effectiveness How do facilities impact the effectiveness of training programs? Implement of new procedures affected by a lack of a quality. modern, permanent training facility, and an elite coaching/training staff.
Methods of developing people - training, coaching, mentoring, training, and learning design.
Socialization is a process that is bi-directional. For example - children's interactions with parents or parents interactions with children establish perceptions each have of the other. The actions elicits immediate and specific types of behavioral responses. If repeated over a period of time, the behavior becomes expected. This cycle can be positive or negative depending on your point of view.
Infants and young child display a wide emotional range and distinct preferences to associating with specific people. Even infants can:
Learning to walk, becoming potty trained, feeding, and begin to assist in dressing and undressing themselves are major childhood milestones. Gradually their dexterity and self-help skills improve as they become more independent. As children start to become more aware of themselves as individuals they will start exploring interests in relationships with other children. This is a very important socialization phase of their development necessary to enter preschool and/or kindergarten.
Supporting Peer Interactions
A parent is the first to have to assist their child in solving conflicts they are unable to resolve themselves. This may involve helping them to interpret another child or siblings actions in order to keep peace and order in the family. As they grow older they interact with unrelated children who do not welcome them into their group.
Sometimes a child has not learned how to share and/or fails to understand the "unstated rules" of playing fair and respecting the rights of other children. This is a crucial stage of development that must be acquired prior to entering school. This is sometimes refereed to as acquiring social skills. Teachers may attempt to assist children in how to enter play activities by the use of scaffolding, modeling, giving children desirable props, suggesting roles, or entering into the play activities with the children.
A mother raising her first child, as a necessity, will spend time with her child as a play partner during the early formative years. In some cases this responsibility will be shifted to a day care provider. It is important to follow the child’s lead while engaging in a positive give and take environment that helps develop communication skills. It may sound cute, but baby talk doesn't provide a good role model for developing language skills. Children should begin school with their speaking vocabulary of 1,000 plus words. They may recognize, but not understand the meaning of a much larger vocabulary.
Always demonstrate a sincere interest in what the child is doing by documenting and displaying examples of their artistic activities. Make a real effort to not engage in negative statements, but rather make a couscous effort to encourage the child’s effort by providing comments that are supportive of the child’s efforts. Such encouragement can boost a child’s self-confidence and reward their persistence;
Don't put them in front of a TV to provide some respite from the constant attention they require. Spend quality time by reading to them and later to have them read to you. In families with two languages, encourage both English and the second language.
Techniques involved in the learning process
To understand the process of learning in children requires parents and teachers to use various techniques such as:
PDF Teachers of young children (3-5 years old) and their interaction with pupils: approaching positive classroom management by Frini Paraskevopoulou.
By Leaps and Bounds: Physical Development - PBS Throughout the early years, a child's physical skills are developing at an astonishing rate. Preschoolers need many opportunities to practice their new skills.
Understanding Physical Development in Young Children Muscles and Motor Skills. The growth of a young child's physical abilities is truly amazing. Think of all the physical abilities a child must develop to adjust to their environment.
Skill Development Cognitive phase - Identification and development of the component parts of the skill. The learning of physical skills requires the relevant movements to be objectively assessed.
How A Child Develops - Develop Skills What is child development and what skills do children develop at different ages. These include speech pathologists, occupational and physical therapists.
Developing physical skills: doing, playing and coordination Alongside intellectual and emotional growth, your child will develop physical skills: doing, playing and coordination. Part three in a series on the theories of educationalist Benjamin Bloom.
Participation in Play activities
Failure to learn how to throw a baseball or football will discourage an individual from participating in these sports. The same applies to hitting a tennis ball or swimming - the inability to perform basis skills discourages an individual's interest in participating in these sports. This is especially true as the basic skill gap widens as we age. No one wants to stand out in a crowd, especially if they are experiencing negative attitudes from others.
Children who do not develop the appropriate physical skills get left out of unsupervised play activities on the school grounds or in their neighborhood with their friends. This is considered the start of a trend of avoiding physical activities were an individual's performance can result in embarrassing "gaffs". Eventually this can result in a person being physically inactive throughout their lifetime.
Children, who do not learn how to throw, catch, jump, and kick as youngsters, will not
possess the skills required as an adult to participate in physical activities. Unfortunately
this will cause most to not get the appropriate amounts of physical activity to be fit
Types of Evaluation
Evaluation is the essential part of every training program. This is the test to evaluate if the training was successful or if not, where and how it missed the mark. Evaluation is classified as:
The abilities of every individual are the result of a combination of multiple factors that influence the physical, mental, and emotional development from the cradle to the grave:
Genetic - Dominate and Recessive traits
Facilitation - Communication Skills Training from MindTools.com What does that mean exactly? By the end of the design and planning stage, you should have a solid agenda, which focuses on outcomes.
Erik Erikson | Psychosocial Stages Erik Erikson does not talk about Psychosexual Stages, he discusses ... on three levels simultaneously: Biological, Social and Psychological (representing the ... not criticize the child for failures and accidents (particularly when toilet training).
Planning You may choose to review the detail in stages in a similar manner to the way any project manager would review a comprehensive report . However, do not confuse the level of detail you need for project definition and status as necessarily being on point. The project might appear successful because training materials were professionally prepared. They often represent important review points or interdependencies in the plan.
Project Management Articles One of the many skills required of a project manager is the ability to ask searching questions and persevere until a clear answer is obtained. Many of the pitfalls in projects could be avoided if questions were articulated fully and if the answers were given clearly and in detail. A project manager's prime task is managing a project from inception through to success. To accomplish this, the rank and file of the company must adhere to the sprit and intention of new ideas. Sometimes this involves making change in the organization or its ways of working so the changes must be implemented.
Effects of Training on Teacher's Stages of ConcernResources:
Title: Effects of Training on Teacher's Stages of Concern Regarding Inclusion.
PDF Effect of information at different stages of users Users training at an early than at a later stage or vice versa. This study was conducted to examine effects of absorbing computer training starting at different ages.
Training and development People's learning styles greatly affect what type of training they will find most satisfying. Training people in progressive stages, accomplish one skill prior to tackling the next.
Stages of Learning Sport Skills - Sports Training Adviser The stages of learning are phases that athletes experience as they progress through skills. Coaching instructions and training activities can be designed to meet the needs of the individual athlete.
The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
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