What is a Curriculum?
The common usage of the word curriculum generally refers to the content
of the material that will be covered in an official published school
catalog. In the case of
public and private schools that are registered with a state's
Department of Education, the schools must meet or exceed those
standards that has been established as official standards that comply
with federal requirements of content.
There are alternative
perspectives on what is actually
taught and learned compared to what is officially established as
courses of study -
Official Curriculum - What state
and district officials set forth in curricular frameworks and
courses of study. The expectation is that teachers will teach it and
students will learn it.
Taught Curriculum - What teachers actually
choose to teach. Teachers base their choices based upon their knowledge
of the subject,
experiences in teaching the content, affection or
dislike for topics, and attitudes directed towards the students in
Learned Curriculum -
scores do not always reveal the depth of the content students are
learning. In many case there are many
unspecified lessons that a teacher believes should be embedded in the
learning environment. In some instructional models, the student will
process information in particular ways and not in others. They
will learn to question and how to assume the initiative to research and
verify information presented as fact by the teacher. Students should
learn to respect the "Truth" from the teacher's demonstration of
respect or lack thereof. The learned curriculum
is much more inclusive than the overtly taught curriculum.
Tested Curriculum - Standardized
is a part of what policy makers intended teachers should
concentrate on imparting to their students. The lack of teachers actual
being involved in the construction of the tests, the worse
the fit is between what is taught and what is emphasized on
Approaches to Developing Curriculum
The focus on how to approach
developing a curriculum depends of the subject and the resources that
are readily available.
Traditional approaches to curriculum
There are advantages and
disadvantages of using each
approach depending on the circumstances. Curriculum development is more
likely to achieve effective results if a participatory approach is used.
- Content - The
curriculum is basically a list of knowledge
things that the learners need to know. Usually the decision of what is
on the list is made either by the
trainer, by subject matter specialists, or by a curriculum committee or
group. The content approach usually results in a curriculum that is
theoretical, academic, and based on disciplines. In this
approach, the trainer receives little or no guidance on how to
- Product - The focus
is on what the learners will be able to do (and the
knowledge and skills they require) after the course has finished. This
usually follows a systematic planning procedure, and assumes that there
common goals for the learners, with the provision of adequate
resources and technology. Setting objectives is a very important part
approach. Needs identification is strongly linked to an analysis of a
sets of tasks that should be carried out. It requires an accurate,
detailed identification and description of what a job involves (the
the skills) – sometimes these are termed "competencies". Identifying
needed by physical and recreational educators or sports coaches can be
very difficult, especially in a dynamic
and changing environment of the economy and life long fitness goals.
- Process -
Characterized by the recognition of
individual perception and behavior, and the variations in the social
of different groups of learners. It adopts a less structured procedure,
based upon an appreciation that understanding and knowledge depend on a
of constantly shifting interactions between individuals, and between
their environments. The ‘content’ and ‘product’ approaches are more
uniform, predictable and ‘safe’. The ‘process’ approach results in a
varied, unpredictable and ‘risky’ curriculum. Specific objectives are
used, although there may be an attempt to identify overall ‘learning
These are more likely to be set on an individual basis rather than for
learners. A process approach, the curriculum development itself becomes
intervention, which may have an impact upon individuals as well as on
organizations and institutions.
The Curriculum Framework specifies
what is to be taught for each
subject in the curriculum. In Pennsylvania, Curriculum Frameworks
include Big Ideas, Concepts, Competencies, and Essential Questions
aligned to Standards and Assessment Anchors and, where appropriate -
Curriculum Framework Definitions:
- Big Ideas:
Declarative statements that describe concepts that transcend grade
levels. Big Ideas are essential to provide focus on specific content
for all students
- Concepts: Describe what students
should know (key knowledge) as a result of this instruction specific to
- Competencies: Describe what
students should be able to do (key skills) as a result of this
instruction, specific to grade level.
The site allows the opportunity to
view a Curriculum Framework, either
select a subject and then the grade level(s), or select a course.
- Essential Questions:
Questions connected to the Standards Aligned System (SAS) framework and
are specifically linked to
the Big Ideas. They should frame student inquiry, promote critical
thinking, and assist in learning transfer.
Should Not Neglect Their Education
There should be an
expectation that all high school athletes will be
“Prepared to enter College and/or be ready to pursue a career in a
sports related field. The standards for a successful entry into the
workplace should be the same as required to enter a
college or university.
Coaches of sports and
Physical Education or recreational education
teachers are required to have 4 year degree plus attending on-going
professional development for teachers as part of their
employment. Teachers can best support
students when they have an academic background and personal experience
in sports and recreational activities. They do not have to have been
paid as a professional athlete.
Defining a Curriculum
A Curriculum Framework is a:
- Summary of the educational
issues facing curriculum development committees;
- Discussion of how state goals
relate to those issues;
- Structure to help district
curriculum development committees address the Alaska student standards;
- Guide for planning professional
- Guide to recommended
instructional and assessment strategies;
- Description of effective
instruction and assessment strategies with an analysis of how they
address the standards;
- Collection of reference
materials to assist curriculum development committees and other
- Tool to communicate the
goals of the standards to the community.
These assumptions related to
private schools, colleges, and universities; however, they apply to
physical education and sports as well as to academic subjects -
- A quality curriculum development process addresses what
should know, be able to do, and be committed to (content), how
it is taught (instruction), how it is measured (assessment), and
how the educational system is organized (context).
- Every aspect of curriculum development should model
inclusive, learner-centered instruction. In other words,
curriculum development committee meetings and district professional
development should mirror best teaching practices. Curriculum
development, instruction, and assessment should be open, fair
processes. Everyone involved must know the purposes for every
activity, the materials or processes to be used, the definition
of success, and the consequences of failure.
- The goal should be to encourage individuals to be
yet collaborate effectively; be self-evaluative yet take others'
perceptions into account; be voracious learners, yet commit themselves
to a balanced education.
- Curriculum development should reflect the fact that
learn better when topics and concepts are tied together through interdisciplinary curriculum and thematic instruction.
- Curriculum for educating and assessing young children
follow early childhood education guidelines and include involvement
of parents and the early childhood community.
- The curriculum development process must assume that
develop at different times; levels or stages must be looked at
as ranges rather than specific grade levels or single-age categories.
- Educational accountability means that the district has a
statement of standards and expectations for students, teachers,
instructional aides, parents, district officials, and all others
who participate in the particular education community. Both standards
must be known and credible to the entire
community. Standards must be evaluated by a variety of assessments. All
methods of an evaluation
process must identify the measurement
yardsticks (processes, instruments) used, the purposes for
the measurement points or descriptors, and the consequences of
meeting or not meeting the stated expectations.
- Professional development should be provided for the
development committee and, when implementing the new curriculum,
teachers and staff also need professional development. A significant
investment in professional development must be an integral part
of any curriculum development process.
- The educational structures must be flexible to allow for
integration of curriculum across the disciplines in cases where
such integration would improve motivation of the students and
relevance of the content.
- These assumptions
must lead to rethinking the conventional
structure and schedule of schools in terms of school day, school
year, grade levels, subject areas, graduation requirements, student
grouping, and physical plant.
Education classes in kindergarten to twelfth grades -
Education - Lesson Plans for Teachers
to help you determine your target heart rate while
being physically active in fun and creative ways during your PE class.
Winter Olympics Stations
allow students to experience
winter Olympic activities in the gym. Students have the opportunity to
use various locomotion and manipulative skills in the stations.
Olympic Games for Kids
an opportunity for young
children to get acquainted with the Olympic Games and the message of of
peace. People playing and working together in peace and friendship
makes for a better and beautiful world.
Students will be
participating in different Winter Olympic events.
By Grade | Pennsylvania Virtual Charter School
Currently available for Kindergarten through twelfth grade, the K12
Inc. ... Better yet, families with multiple children enrolled in PA
Virtual may be able to share some courses, saving you time and energy.
... Returning Third Grade Student ... Health; Physical Education I;
Physical Education II;
9th-12th Grades P.E.
Grade ELA Curriculum, ELA TAG Curriculum ... K-12th Resources .... Like
the other high school physical education courses,
Building Quality in Summer Learning Programs
Summer extended learning time programs
used in Parks and Recreation programs or non-profit community
organizations that focus on sports.
Development Model. Most commonly used; Broad-based multi-activity
approach; Uses units of physical activity or sport as the basic core of
handout_v3 2.pdf - induction
Pennsylvania Standards Aligned System (SAS) is a collaborative product
... Framework, Instruction, Materials & Resources, and
2: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education
of health and physical education concepts and skills ... is an
essential step towards developing and maintaining a healthy, active
lifestyle. ... future personal wellness is dependent upon applying
health-related concepts and ... All students will use health-enhancing
personal, interpersonal and life skills
Public: Physical Education, Health & Wellness
Physical Education, Health & Wellness - Brockton Public. ...
Physical education is a unique and important component of the total
school program. ... appropriate physical education program promotes a
physically active lifestyle. ... health concepts, promotes habits and
conduct that enhance health and wellness, and guides.
Academic Standards for Health & Wellness
choices to create a more successful and balanced lifestyle. The Indiana
Academic ... enhance health and wellness. ... to enhance health.
Will help students develop the essential skills necessary to adopt,
practice, and ... Standard 1. Students will comprehend concepts related
to health promotion and participation.
The following internet
links have been
gleaned from personal communications
public institutions and athletic
have a web presence with information concerning team
materials are copy protected.
The limited use of the
materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given
for the source of the materials.