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Sports Curriculum

What is a Curriculum?
     The common usage of the word curriculum generally refers to the content of the material that will be covered in an official published school catalog. In the case of public and private schools that are registered with a state's Department of Education, the schools must meet or exceed those standards that has been established as official standards that comply with federal requirements of content.

     There are alternative perspectives on what is actually taught and learned compared to what is officially established as courses of study -

Official Curriculum - What state and district officials set forth in curricular frameworks and courses of study. The expectation is that teachers will teach it and that students will learn it.

Taught Curriculum - What teachers actually choose to teach. Teachers base their choices based upon their knowledge of the subject, experiences in teaching the content, affection or dislike for topics, and attitudes directed towards the students in their charge.

Learned Curriculum -  Essentially test scores do not always reveal the depth of the content students are learning. In many case there are many unspecified lessons that a teacher believes should be embedded in the learning environment. In some instructional models, the student will learn to process information in particular ways and not in others. They will learn to question and how to assume the initiative to research and verify information presented as fact by the teacher. Students should learn to respect the "Truth" from the teacher's demonstration of respect or lack thereof. The learned curriculum is much more inclusive than the overtly taught curriculum.

Tested Curriculum - Standardized testing is a part of what policy makers intended teachers should concentrate on imparting to their students. The lack of teachers actual being involved in the construction of the tests, the worse the fit is between what is taught and what is emphasized on standardized tests.

Approaches to Developing Curriculum
     The focus on how to approach developing a curriculum depends of the subject and the resources that are readily available.

      Traditional approaches to curriculum development include
  • Content - The curriculum is basically a list of knowledge – things that the learners need to know. Usually the decision of what is on the list is made either by the trainer, by subject matter specialists, or by a curriculum committee or group. The content approach usually results in a curriculum that is very theoretical, academic, and based on disciplines. In this approach, the trainer receives little or no guidance on how to facilitate the learning process.
  • Product - The focus is on what the learners will be able to do (and the knowledge and skills they require) after the course has finished. This approach usually follows a systematic planning procedure, and assumes that there are common goals for the learners, with the provision of adequate expertise, resources and technology. Setting objectives is a very important part of this approach. Needs identification is strongly linked to an analysis of a job or sets of tasks that should be carried out. It requires an accurate, detailed identification and description of what a job involves (the tasks and the skills) – sometimes these are termed "competencies". Identifying the competencies needed by physical and recreational educators or sports coaches can be very difficult, especially in a dynamic and changing environment of the economy and life long fitness goals.
  • Process - Characterized by the recognition of individual perception and behavior, and the variations in the social contexts of different groups of learners. It adopts a less structured procedure, and is based upon an appreciation that understanding and knowledge depend on a process of constantly shifting interactions between individuals, and between them and their environments. The ‘content’ and ‘product’ approaches are more closed, uniform, predictable and ‘safe’. The ‘process’ approach results in a more open, varied, unpredictable and ‘risky’ curriculum. Specific objectives are often not used, although there may be an attempt to identify overall ‘learning outcomes’. These are more likely to be set on an individual basis rather than for all the learners. A process approach, the curriculum development itself becomes an intervention, which may have an impact upon individuals as well as on organizations and institutions.
       There are advantages and disadvantages of using each approach depending on the circumstances. Curriculum development is more likely to achieve effective results if a participatory approach is used.

 Source - AgriForest Training

Curriculum Framework
       The Curriculum Framework specifies what is to be taught for each subject in the curriculum. In Pennsylvania, Curriculum Frameworks include Big Ideas, Concepts, Competencies, and Essential Questions aligned to Standards and Assessment Anchors and, where appropriate - Eligible Content. 

       Curriculum Framework Definitions:
  • Big Ideas: Declarative statements that describe concepts that transcend grade levels. Big Ideas are essential to provide focus on specific content for all students
  • Concepts: Describe what students should know (key knowledge) as a result of this instruction specific to grade level.
  • Competencies: Describe what students should be able to do (key skills) as a result of this instruction, specific to grade level.
  • Essential Questions: Questions connected to the Standards Aligned System (SAS) framework and are specifically linked to the Big Ideas. They should frame student inquiry, promote critical thinking, and assist in learning transfer.
       The site allows the opportunity to view a Curriculum Framework, either select a subject and then the grade level(s), or select a course.

Source - Pennsylvania Department of Education

Athletes Should Not Neglect Their Education

       There should be an expectation that all high school athletes will be “Prepared to enter College and/or be ready to pursue a career in a sports related field. The standards for a successful entry into the workplace should be the same as required to enter  a college or university.

       Coaches of sports and Physical Education or recreational education teachers are required to have 4 year degree plus attending on-going professional development for teachers as part of their employment.  Teachers can best support students when they have an academic background and personal experience in sports and recreational activities. They do not have to have been paid as a professional athlete.

Defining a Curriculum Framework
       A Curriculum Framework is a:

  • Summary of the educational issues facing curriculum development committees;
  • Discussion of how state goals and standards relate to those issues;
  • Structure to help district curriculum development committees address the Alaska student standards;
  • Guide for planning professional development;
  • Guide to recommended instructional and assessment strategies;
  • Description of effective instruction and assessment strategies with an analysis of how they address the standards;
  • Collection of reference materials to assist curriculum development committees and other educators; 
  • Tool to communicate the goals of the standards to the community.
Assumptions
       These assumptions related to public and private schools, colleges, and universities; however, they apply to physical education and sports as well as to academic subjects -
  • A quality curriculum development process addresses what students should know, be able to do, and be committed to (content), how it is taught (instruction), how it is measured (assessment), and how the educational system is organized (context).
  • Every aspect of curriculum development should model inclusive, learner-centered instruction. In other words, district curriculum development committee meetings and district professional development should mirror best teaching practices. Curriculum development, instruction, and assessment should be open, fair processes. Everyone involved must know the purposes for every activity, the materials or processes to be used, the definition of success, and the consequences of failure.
  • The goal should be to encourage individuals to be independent, yet collaborate effectively; be self-evaluative yet take others' perceptions into account; be voracious learners, yet commit themselves to a balanced education.
  • Curriculum development should reflect the fact that students learn better when topics and concepts are tied together through interdisciplinary curriculum and thematic instruction.
  • Curriculum for educating and assessing young children should follow early childhood education guidelines and include involvement of parents and the early childhood community.
  • The curriculum development process must assume that students develop at different times; levels or stages must be looked at as ranges rather than specific grade levels or single-age categories.
  • Educational accountability means that the district has a clear statement of standards and expectations for students, teachers, instructional aides, parents, district officials, and all others who participate in the particular education community. Both standards and assessments must be known and credible to the entire community. Standards must be evaluated by a variety of assessments. All methods of an evaluation process must identify the measurement yardsticks (processes, instruments) used, the purposes for measuring, the measurement points or descriptors, and the consequences of meeting or not meeting the stated expectations.
  • Professional development should be provided for the curriculum development committee and, when implementing the new curriculum, teachers and staff also need professional development. A significant investment in professional development must be an integral part of any curriculum development process.
  • The educational structures must be flexible to allow for the integration of curriculum across the disciplines in cases where such integration would improve motivation of the students and relevance of the content.
  • These assumptions must lead to rethinking the conventional structure and schedule of schools in terms of school day, school year, grade levels, subject areas, graduation requirements, student grouping, and physical plant.

Source - Public Education Frameworks Project

Physical Education classes in kindergarten to twelfth grades -
Physical Education - Lesson Plans for Teachers This activity is to help you determine your target heart rate while being physically active in fun and creative ways during your PE class.

Winter Olympics Stations To allow students to experience winter Olympic activities in the gym. Students have the opportunity to use various locomotion and manipulative skills in the stations.

Olympic Games for Kids This is an opportunity for young children to get acquainted with the Olympic Games and the message of of friendship and peace. People playing and working together in peace and friendship makes for a better and beautiful world.

Winter Olympics Students will be participating in different Winter Olympic events.

Curriculum By Grade | Pennsylvania Virtual Charter School Currently available for Kindergarten through twelfth grade, the K12 Inc. ... Better yet, families with multiple children enrolled in PA Virtual may be able to share some courses, saving you time and energy. ... Returning Third Grade Student ... Health; Physical Education I; Physical Education II;

9th-12th Grades P.E. 6th Grade ELA Curriculum, ELA TAG Curriculum ... K-12th Resources .... Like the other high school physical education courses,

Recommended Reading:

PDF Building Quality in Summer Learning Programs Summer extended learning time programs used in Parks and Recreation programs or non-profit community organizations that focus on sports.

PPT Curriculum Models 1. Skill Development Model. Most commonly used; Broad-based multi-activity approach; Uses units of physical activity or sport as the basic core of the curriculum.

PDF   SAS handout_v3 2.pdf - induction   The Pennsylvania Standards Aligned System (SAS) is a collaborative product ... Framework, Instruction, Materials & Resources, and Interventions.

References:

Standard 2: Comprehensive Health and Physical Education Mission: Knowledge of health and physical education concepts and skills ... is an essential step towards developing and maintaining a healthy, active lifestyle. ... future personal wellness is dependent upon applying health-related concepts and ... All students will use health-enhancing personal, interpersonal and life skills

Brockton Public: Physical Education, Health & Wellness
Physical Education, Health & Wellness - Brockton Public. ... Physical education is a unique and important component of the total school program. ... appropriate physical education program promotes a physically active lifestyle. ... health concepts, promotes habits and conduct that enhance health and wellness, and guides.

PDF Indiana Academic Standards for Health & Wellness Practicing healthy choices to create a more successful and balanced lifestyle. The Indiana Academic ... enhance health and wellness. ... to enhance health.  Will help students develop the essential skills necessary to adopt, practice, and ... Standard 1. Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and participation.

Resources:

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Sports Curriculum
PDF  Snowplow Sam Curriculum
PDF  Basic Skills 1-8 Curriculum
PDF  Ice Dance Curriculum
PDF  Artistry In Motion Curriculum
PDF  Hockey Curriculum
PDF  Spin and Jump Curriculum

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.


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