physical skills requires short to long term memory conversion
Skill learning techniques can
the acquisition and retention process of acquiring memory and motor
are a number of steps you can take to improve your
memory and retrieval capacity.
Principles for learning motor
skills are based on
psychology principles that are applied to learning physical movements
of all sports.
techniques can facilitate sport skill memory and retention:
- Ideally every learner should acquire skills correctly
the first time. Coaches should monitor and guide
athletes as much as possible in the early stages of learning. A skill
learned incorrectly is often difficult to delete and then retrain.
- Skills that have specific rhythms are easier to
learn and rhythmic recall than
- Chunking movements.
It is well known that such sequential skills involve chaining a number
of primitive actions together. A positive representation of skills can
formed by chunking together several elements in a logical sequence.
Coaches can use this concept to
express concepts that are easy to learn and recall as “chunks” that are
a compressed representation of a complex concept.
- Provide a reason to acquire the skill.
Explain and demonstrate new
skills so that the athlete understands what the skill requires and why
it is executed that way. Also make clear how the skill will enhance
- Associate new skills and concepts with previous acquired
skills. Skaters will learn new skills quickly if the
component is based on a skill they understand.
- Establish specific cues that help focus the
athlete's attention. A cue alerts the skater and
associated aspects of a specific learned skill.
- Over learning is a necessary part of the process of
undoing, followed by relearning
the correct technique. Over training means
practicing skills beyond what was first necessary to learn them. It is
an effective approach when incorrect movement patterns are deeply
The techniques below can
help you to develop a flexible, customized memory system that is
suitable for your learning style and the skills required in your
sport. The techniques are divided into four categories,
each which represents a general principle for improving memory.
- Be selective.
The challenge is to selecting what to
remember. Make choices about what is most important to
learn. Imagine that you are going to create a test on the
consider the questions you would ask.
- Make it meaningful. Begin the
learning process by starting from the general and narrow your focus to
the specific. Even random ideas - care be organized in a way to
make them easier to remember.
- Create associations.
The encoded data in your neural networks is arranged according
to a scheme that makes sense to you. The introduction of new data
can be more effectively accomplished if you associate the new with
related data that you already know something about.
Use Your Body
- Learn it once, actively. Remembering
an idea requires going beyond just thinking about it. Do
it. Physical action is a great memory enhancer. The same
energy, determination, and single mindedness that you use for academics
should be applied to pursuing a competitive sport. Learning takes
energy. When you
learn effectively, you are burning calories when you are sitting at
a desk reading a textbook or running an under 4 minute mile.
- Relax. When
you're relaxed, you absorb new information quickly and recall it with
greater ease and accuracy. Students who can't recall information
stress of a final exam can often recite the same facts later when they
are relaxed. Relaxation is a state of alertness, free of tension,
during which your
mind can play with new information and apply memory techniques.
- Create mental pictures.
The key is the use your imagination. Use images to connect facts and
illustrate relationships. Associations within and among abstract
concepts that can be "seen" are much easier to recall when they are
- Recite and repeat. When
you repeat something out loud, you anchor the concept in two different
senses. First, you get physical sensation in your throat, tongue,
lips when voicing the concept. Second, you hear it. The
result is synergistic, just as it is when you create pictures.
is, the effect of using two different senses is greater than the sum of
their individual effects.
- Write it down.
This technique is obvious, yet easy to forget. Writing a note to
yourself helps you remember an idea, even if you never look at the note
again. Writing engages a different kind of memory than
speaking. A written paper can reveal gaps in knowledge that would
be apparent in an oral review would. The converse is also true as oral
reviews can reveal gaps that may be missed in a written review.
Use Your Brain
- Engage your emotions.
One powerful way to enhance your memory is to make friends with your
amygdala - the area of your brain that lights up with extra
neural activity each time you feel a strong emotion. When a topic
excites love, laughter, or fear, the amygdala sends a flurry of
chemical messages that say, in effect: This information is important
and useful. Don't forget it.
You're more likely to remember an
idea or concept if you relate it to a goal you feel strongly about. The
more goals you
have and the more clearly they are defined, the more channels you
create for incoming information.
- Over Learning.
One way to fight mental fuzziness is to learn more than you need to
know about a subject simply to pass a test. You can pick a
apart, examine it, add to it, and go over it until it becomes second
- Escape the short-term memory trap.
Short-term memory is different from the kind of memory you'll need
during exam week. For example, most of us can look at an
seven digit phone number once and remember it long enough to dial
See if you can recall the number the next day.
A short review within minutes or
hours of a study
session can move material from short-term memory into long-term memory.
- Use your times of peak energy.
Study your most difficult subjects during the times when your energy
peaks. Many people can concentrate more effectively during
hours. The early morning hours can be especially productive, even
those who hate to get up with the sun. Observe the peaks and
in your energy flow during the day and adjust study times accordingly.
- Distribute learning.
As an alternative to marathon study sessions, experiment with shorter,
sessions that are spaced out over days/weeks. These are
particularly helpful when your activity is the middle to concluding
test to knowledge/skills. You might find that you can get far
done in three two-hour sessions than in one six-hour session.
- Be aware of attitudes.
If you think a subject is boring, remind yourself that everything is
related to everything else. Look for connections that relate to
- Give your "secret brain" a chance.
Sometimes the way you combine studying with other activities can affect
how well you remember information. The trick is to avoid what
psychologists call retroactive inhibition, something that happens when
a new or unrelated activity interferes with previous learning.
- Combine techniques. All of
these memory techniques can work even better in combination.
two or three techniques to use on a particular assignment and
experiment for yourself. For example, after you take a few
get an overview of a reading assignment, you could draw a quick picture
or diagram to represent the main point. Or you could over learn a
chemistry equation by singing a jingle about it all the way to work.
- Remember something else. When you
are stuck and can't remember something that you're sure you know,
remember something else that is related to it.
- Notice when you do remember.
To develop your memory, notice when you recall information easily and
ask yourself what memory techniques you're using naturally. Also,
notice when it's difficult to recall information and adjust your
learning techniques. And remember to congratulate yourself when
- Use it before you lose it. To
remember something, access it a lot. Read it, write it, speak it,
listen to it, apply it - find some way to make contact with the
material regularly. Each time you do so, you widen the neural
to the material and make it easier to recall the next time.
External Sources of lower performance:
- Adopt the attitude that you never forget.
You might not believe that an idea or a thought never leaves your
memory. That's OK. In fact, it doesn't matter whether you
the idea or not. It can work for you
Don't consume alcohol or
take drugs not prescribed by a physician.
Don't skip breakfast - don't over consume sugar. A
high protein and high carbohydrate diet recommended. Food intake before
and during competitions can significantly affects an athlete's
performance. In particular, nutrition impacts
player’s psychological state, alertness, memory recall, and overall
physical, mental, and emotional performance.
Lesson Plan Grades 6-8
Air resistance provides a counterforce
to gravity as a skydiver falls out of an airplane. ... Understanding
motion and the principles that explain it.
Physics of Kayak Stroking
June 10, 2001. Though Newton's Laws explain the basic concept of how a
kayaker is able
to propel himself forward, there is a lot more going on. Including
torque. Torque is the
reason why the kayak swings in the opposite direction of each stroke.
If a stroke is done on the right side, the kayak rotates
counter-clockwise, but if the stroke is done on the left, the kayak
rotates clockwise. This is because that while a stroke is taking place
the paddle acts as a lever arm for the vessel.
Museum of Unworkable Devices Physics Gallery
assumed physical principles are not always obeyed by .... torque on the
system, and that will produce counter-clock -wise motion.
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