Sports Psychology
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San Diego Figure Skating Communications

Sociology of Sports

Should Children Universally Participate in Sports?
      Are organized programs of youth sports worth the time, effort, and expense for parents to involve their children?  What are the advantages and disadvantages of participation in youth sports:
  • Full participation by all ages and skill groupings in a multi-level structure of informal and formal activities and/or competitive events?
  • Adult/Masters Sport participation divided into age and/or skill levels in informal and formal organized activities including competitive events?
      What are the major motivations for these athletes:
  • fun,
  • physical fitness,
  • winning
      Can sports provide a serious leisure/recreational activity for adults? Do adults require a competitive environment to measure achievement/self worth?

      How does our social structure, culture, and values influence sports participation?  The sociology of sports is the study of the relationship between sports and society.  Sports serve as a microcosm of society.  For example, in the selection process by team captains in elementary through high school gym classes;
  • Selection for a team. Were you among the first or last to be selected?
  • What positive or negative issues occurred as a result of the selection and deselecting that were occurring?
    Socialization of sports also looks at issues such as:
  • Gender socialization - Machismo (macho) vs. feminist (femenina)
  • Gender role transcendence - Unwarranted remark about a person's sexuality
  • Gender stereotypes - Role strain versus cognitive balancing
Recommended Reading:
  • PDF  The Evolution of Urban Society and Social Changes  Values and forms of participation. Against this background, sports participation in ... structure of its society, but also the very environment Chinese people ... Participation in sports as a social phenomenon and cultural practice.
  • PDF  WHO Report - Girls' Participation in Physical Activities   Patterns of Girls' Participation in Sports and Physical Activities; .... contribute to girls' social exclusion in sports and wider society. The dominance of sports as a product of a cultural belief system that values certain activities and skills for one sex and not for the other.
  • PDF  Sport and Gender  Gender is a social construct that outlines the roles, behaviors, ... and sense of self worth. The participation in sports allows girls and women, as well as boys and men, to benefit equitably. Sport is an integral part of the culture of almost every nation.
  • The Influence of Peer Groups in Adolescence  Is the rise of peer groups in our fast paced world a problem that needs to addressed?  The adolescent must learn the patterns of action required for participation in society. Social structure is passed on through the family, but there always has always been a separate youth culture, in which young people maintain attitudes and values.
  • Moral Reasoning in the Context of Sport  According to David Light Shields & Brenda Light Bredemeier, Co-Directors of the Center for Sport, Character & Culture, University of Notre Dame, the organizational principles or structures of moral reasoning by those who follow a domain approach to the development of social cognition, "Game Reasoning" is a simple form of moral reasoning that occurs in the context of competitive sports.
      Robert E. Rinehart California State University, San Bernardino, USA

This study is part of a larger ethnographic project which examines human rights issues in youth figure skating, from both the skaters and the adults points of view. As in many first world, westernized sports are available to youth participants in the late 20th/early 21st century, parental involvement and support is necessary for viable participation of children in figure skating.

We examine the figure skating subculture(s) from the point of view of the aspiring national-class skater — which is, of course, a different view than that of elite athletes who have already been identified as world class. We also interrogate the involvement of parents as co-actors in this figure skating subculture, examine the degrees to which this involvement is beneficial, and trace possible results of parental involvement in delivery of youth sport in the United States.

In the reporting of the subjectivity and lived experiences of our subjects, we have utilized a fictionalized amalgam which is meant to bring the reader closer to the actual lived experiences — closer to the affect of the experience of being a teenage figure skater. As well, we discuss several key themes which impinge upon the human rights of youth figure skaters.


Sports Sociology I  Sports sociology considers the relationship between sports and society. – Sports as a microcosm of society. – How culture and values influences sports.

Society of Sport Journal  is the official Journal for the North America Society for the Sociology of Sport.

Study Sports Sociology  Why Study Sports Sociology? Over the past three decades top-level sporting ... Mass Society and the Commercialization of Sport. Sociology of Sport Journal.

YouTube - Sociology of Sports  May 25, 2008. This is a 3 minute preview version of the full length documentary. This program considers what can be learned about society through sports

Psychology & Sociology Of Sports |  Jan. 13, 2011. Psychology & Sociology Of Sports. Sports are competitive physical activities with official rules. How internal and external rewards motivate athletes.

Dance - Parkview Arts/Science Magnet High School  It is a cross curricular "body lab" for English, Science, Math, Art, and History. Students can explore career opportunities as dancers and choreographers.
Intimate Act of Choreography, Used book  A comprehensive book that covers all aspects of choreography from the most fundamental techniques to highly sophisticated artistic concerns. The Intimate Act of Choreography presents the what and how of choreography in a workable format that begins with basics - time, space, force - and moves on to the more complex issues faced by the intermediate and advanced choreographer - form, style, abstraction, compositional structures, and choreographic devices.

Choreography Notation and Preservation - William Weir  Nov. 7, 2009.  He was a modern dance choreographer. Dance had no copyright protection until the late 1970s. Advances in videotape made it easier to steal another choreographer's moves easier.  The Laban Notation is the best known method of recording dance steps and moves; however, it is an arcane code that never caught on with choreographers and dancers. "Very few people can write it, and very few people can read it," says Dick Caples, executive director of the Lar Lubovitch Dance Company. Merce Cunningham was a modern dance choreographer, but because his moves were so difficult, it's usually ballet troupes that license his work. As a result, the dances end up being more graceful and balletic.

Running Bear - Line dance choreographed by Neil Hale  31 Stomp right forward, Pause (for effect, stretch arms out front and back, palms down at waist height). This presentation by John Walton from the original.

Body Language  Appearance is an important aspect of presentation skills. Choreography is an important factor in an effective presentation.

Tips to Pick Up Dance Routines at Auditions  The ability to remember choreography increases with dancers who can verbally ... body's energy differently, which effects the presentation of choreography.

Vipers cheer, dance, win  Baltimore Sun, April 13, 2003. Team performed stunts to choreography, effect, execution and synchronization to win Ameri-Cheer Championships at Disney World. Presentation is a key aspect to winning over the judges.

Ice Skating Review: Swan Lake ASB Theatre, Aotea Centre  July 23, 2010 Tchaikovsky's Russian love triangle - the tale of Odette, Odile and Prince Siegfried - the ballet has toured the world for 135 years, and now is performed on ice.

Figure Skating Training Secrets   Off-Ice for Skaters Off-Ice Training is the winning strategy for competitive skaters. In order to excel in figure skating the skater must be prepared both both physically and technically.

U.S. Figure Skating Announces Position on New ISU Scoring System  Jan. 16, 2004  The new system, was announced using advancements in technology and provides increased feedback to the skaters and coaches ... U.S. Figure Skating Action Plan

George Balanchine  In 1972, Balanchine choreographed a new ballet to the same score, ... les Sortilèges includes a wide range of special effects, including animation. design, and presentation, which have altered the thinking of the world of dance.


The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with concerning team and individual sports programs:

PDF  Sports Personality
          Role of Sports Psychology
PDF  Heredity

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

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