Principle of Reversibility
The Reversibility Principle Does
Not Apply to Skill Retention
The Reversibility Principle states that athletes
of training after they stop working out; however, the
detraining effects can be reversed when training is resumed. In short,
While rest periods are necessary for physical recovery,
extended intervals of resting will actually cause an actual reduce
physical fitness. The
effects of fitness training diminish over time, causing the body to
revert back to its state prior to training.
Detraining starts to occurs within a relatively short time
period after training ceases. Approximately 10% of strength is lost
after 8 weeks of inactivity, but 30-40% of muscular endurance is lost
the same time period.
Researchers report athletes usually feel the effects -
endurance and conditioning - due to missed
workouts in a relative short period of time.
Coordination is required for continuous motor
skills (walking, biking, etc.). These skills appear to be stored in
long-term memory with very little degradation. See Memory
Techniques. Over an extended period of inactivity physical
strength, endurance, and flexibility decline and eventually are lost;
however, the knowledge an athlete acquired to execute motor skills and
strategies is retained long after they are unable to execute the
The challenge often concerns regaining precise
timing after detraining.
In other words, the motor skill programs remain intact but the body's
physical tools for executing the programs become rusty and must be
- Conditioning. After taking a long break from
training, begin a
program to rebuild sport fitness. After several weeks of not raining,
athletes should gradually increase their general conditioning/fitness
before resuming the training
volume and intensity previously attained.
- Resting Active. During the off season, active
in other sports or activities minimizes detraining effects and may even
have some transfer or facilitation of skill acquisition.
Avoid long rest periods with complete
Returning to training. Increase exercise gradually and
after long periods of inactivity. Athletes should avoid performing
intense workouts without first participating in a conditioning program.
- Resumption of training
Athletes who are restarting their weight training will
remember how to properly execute the lifts, but can sustain an
injury if they overestimate the maximum weight they can lift
compared to their previous best lifting performance.
- Flexibility. Emphasize stretching exercises to
previous levels of joint flexibility. This is particularly important
for older adults who
participate in senior sports.
the Knowledge Transfer Problem
A central issue in acquiring knowledge is its appropriate transfer
beyond the contexts and contents of first acquisition. In contrast to
dominant "common elements" transfer theory, an interpretive perspective
is developed, according to which "appropriate transfer" is a concept
socioculturally rather than objectively defined.
Skill Acquisition Review
of research conducted in the past ten years on cognitive skill
acquisition. It covers the initial stages of acquiring a single
principle or rule, the initial stages of acquiring a collection of
interacting pieces of knowledge, and the final stages of acquiring a
skill, wherein practice causes increases in speed and accuracy.
- PDF EFF
Research Principle: A Contextualized Approach
Research on the transfer of learning. teachers
starts with real-life contexts and is weaved into all stages of every
teaching and learning process. Instruction and assessment are aimed
directly at the skills and knowledge adults need to perform tasks they
have identified as important and meaningful to them. The focus is on
the application rather than on the possession of basic skills and
Volume 1(2): January, 1996. SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING.
This edition of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned
with the Principle of Specificity.
- Specificity | Fitness and Health
Nov. 28, 2006 ... Specificity states that your training should move
general to highly specific training. It also dictates that in order to
improve a particular skill.
Focusing on Specificity Training
Focusing on Specificity Training Written by NFPT Staff Writer
Friday, 03 February 2012 00:00. The
personal trainer will encounter athletes of all stripes.
Reversibility Principle in Sports Training
The Reversibility Principle
dictates that athletes lose
the effects of training when they stop working out. It also means that
detraining effects can be reversed.
- GCSE Bitesize: Principles of training
The best training programs are built on principles
of specificity, overload, progression and reversibility. You can use
the FITT acronym to help incorporate add the detail of Frequency,
Intensity, Time, and Type.
The following internet
links have been
gleaned from personal communications
public institutions and athletic
have a web presence with information concerning team
materials are copy protected.
The limited use of the
materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given
for the source of the materials.