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Projectiles in Sports

    In the area of sports, a projectiles includes objects that are hit, thrown, or kicked, plus when an athlete jumps or flings themself into the air. Principles about the effects of force concern angle, height, impact, and spin on sport objects. Understanding these effects offers direction for developing sound technique for related sport skills.

The Forces that Affect Flight

1. The force that pushes an object determines its direction and rotation in flight. For example, a curve ball travels more slowly than a straight ball due to the force that is generated off center into the spin, as well as the retarding effect of air friction.
2. The force of gravity has a downward effect on flight as soon as contact with the driving force (e.g., a bat, thrower's hand) is broken. The weight (mass), upward force, and air resistance determine how quickly an object will fall.

3. As speed increases, air resistance has a greater retarding effect on an object in flight. For example, a javelin or discus should be released at an angle of tilt that exposes the least surface area in flight in order to maximize throwing distance.

Principles about Angle and Height of Projectiles in Sports

4. To acheive maximum distance, the optimum angle of projection is 45 degrees, assuming that the beginning and ending points are at the same level. For example, the angle of release for a shot put is closer to 42 degrees or less because it is released well above the level of the landing area.

5. The time in flight depends upon the height it attains. For example, a springboard diver attempts to project himself high in the air in order to allow time to complete the desired airborne movements.

The speed at take-off has an impact on the height or distance athletes (projectiles in sports) jump. Training to build power fitness, or the combination of speed and strength, improve jumping time in the air.

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Principles about Impact on Objects

6. The angle of rebound of a projectile equals the angle at which it approaches a surface (angle of incidence), but can be affected by irregular shapes, elasticity, and spin. For example, a basketball

7. When both an object and the striking surface are moving, the momentum with which the object will rebound equals the momentum of both, minus the momentum retained by the striking object.  A moving ball will rebound with greater velocity than a slow-moving ball, provided the bat can overcome the inertia of the ball.

A ball rebounds off a backboard at the same angle at which it approaches, unless it is partially deflated or a player puts spin on it. For example, the striking force of a bat on a ball is determined by the momentum of both objects. A fast-

Principles about Spin on Projectiles in Sports

8. An object propelled without spin tends to waver due to air resistance against an irregular surface, but a small amount of spin produces stability. For example, a volleyball served with a slight spin follows a true course of flight.

9. An object spins in the desired direction when the striking implement is drawn across it in the intended direction. For example, tennis players attempt to stoke the ball with a forward-upward motion in order to impart topspin.

10. The effects of spin on a ball landing on a horizontal surface as follows:

A. Topspin causes a lower angle of rebound, a longer bounce, and more roll.

B. Backspin causes a higher angle of rebound, a shorter bounce, and less roll.

C. Sidespin causes the angle of rebound to change toward the direction of the spin.

References:

Resources:

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Sports Training
PDF  USFS Stretching Training
PDF  Strength Training Exercises
PDF  Cool Down Exercises
PDF  Warm Up Exercises
PDF  Power Skating Classes
PDF  Core Body Training
PDF  Endurance Training Plan
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