The Learning Process
 
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Process of Systematic Learning 

A Process in which new facts and skills are based upon a solid foundation = Systematic Learning
       This concept allows the establishment of a strong basis that is used to construct more complex ideas and concepts that are derived from the basic understanding that has been established.

       Considerable time can be saved by organizing thoughts/data according to their relationships in a hierarchy structure that simplifies the learner making the intended connections that is essential in the learning process unlike the process of rote memorizing of facts.

       Systematic learning is much different from the ability of some individuals who can bridge large gaps of unknown and unrelated information to propose radically new mathematical or scientific concept.
    
       The process of influence people's political, social, or religious actions involves molding their beliefs or desires. Factually information does little to persuade people to change their beliefs or desires as they are generally deeply rooted in emotional considerations that influence the formative of their basic beliefs or desires. Such individuals function in their own idealized world that may or may not be considered as "mainstream".

Systematic learning involves a structure of logical conceptual hierarchies of 1 + 1 = 2
        In math and geometry, certain basic information is assumed as being a basic axiom, that forms the basis for "proving" other theoretical concepts that are accepted as principles. The principle of cause and effect is an essential principle based upon experience that is then extrapolated forward to apply to new circumstances to predict the outcome.

Presentation, Application and Feedback (PAF)



Presentation
Motivation
       The first component of Presentation is Motivation. It has two stages:

(1) Initial - The initial motivation needs to identify the value and relevance of the training to the learner(s). It should answers their question “What’s in it for me?” (WIIFM).

(2) Ongoing – The motivation is maintained to keep the learners interested and actively participating throughout the training. It often builds on the initial WIIFM.

Information Transfer
       This is the second component of Presentation. New facts, information, procedures, skills,
etc. are introduced and explained to the learners. Presentation methods frequently used include:
  • Lecture,
  • Demonstration,
  • Discovery,
  • Discussion,
  • Field trip,
  • Group presentation,
  • individual presentation,
  • Interview,
  • Reading,
  • Various forms of self instruction.
  • Tutorial.
       Incorporating the VIVE formula ensures that you maximize learning:
  • Variety
  • Interaction
  • Visuals
  • Examples
Testing for Understanding (TFU)
        The final component of Presentation is often integrated with the Information Transfer in order to keep learners actively participating and to ensure that they are actually learning the information. Verifying the learning is occurring is accomplished by the instructor asking questions related to the content just covered or through short activities.

       
Any course that is taught will repeat the cycle of Presentation, Application and Feedback (PAF) many times as part of the instructional process. When allocating time for an instructional period, it is recommend that 30-40% of time is spent on Presentation, and 60-70% of time is spent on a combination of Application and Feedback.  Generally more than 50% time spen in the Presentation phase shifts the purpose of the instruction away from training that supports performance improvement and more towards focusing on the instructor as a provider of information. When this happens, learner participation, inter- action, and skill development has become compromised because of the shift in the focus of the presentation.

        There is a distinct advantage for the instructor/presenter, in a face to face environment, to engage the learners actively during Presentation Phase (building content, sharing ideas and experiences, collabor- ating), when the instructor benefits from observing the Application Phase in order to provide specific individual feedback.

        Depending on the ages of the learners, a more efficient and cost effective way to provide training may involve the use of job aids or self-directed e-learning (aka “CBT”).

        When more time is allocated for the Application and Feedback Phase, the size of the audience needs to be reduced to allow enough time for an adequate number of anticipated questions per student.

        The level of mastery that is expected depends on specific stated objectives. In life and death decisions, the classroom needs to involve a virtual environment as opposed to a physical environment because of the danger associated with acquiring the necessary skills.

Application
        During the Application Phase, the learner needs to learn how to apply the content presented during Information Transfer. This is the opportunity for students to practice what they have learned before the training session ends. Repeating the exercise a number of times will assist in the their mastery.

        Application methods that are frequently used include:
  • Case study,
  • Discovery,
  • Game,
  • Practical exercise,
  • Question and answer,
  • Questionnaire,
  • Role playing,
  • Simulation.
        This opportunity for practice during training builds the learners’ competence as well as confidence and enhances the likelihood that what was learned can be transferred to the their daily experiences.

Amount of Time Allocated
        The goal of an effective instructor led training is to provide opportunities for everyone in the training session to share ideas and experiences during the Presentation portion. It is essential that the learners be able to receive individual feedback from the instructor during Application. When the time is limited, it is necessary to reduce the size of the audience (class) so that everyone receives the attention the individual attention they feel is necessary.

Feedback
         Constructive feedback will provide support regarding the accuracy or adequacy of the responses made during Application Phase. This support can be provided from the instructor or peers in the class.

Feedback must be:
Specific
• Immediate
• Constructive
• Point out important strengths.
• Point out areas for improvement.
• Suggest ways to improve.

Intent of Training
         Assuming the intention of the instruction is to actually change the performance of the learners, adequate time must be given for them to attempt to applying their new skills and knowledge under the instructors  supervision to ensure everyone will receive the feedback to be successful.

Level of Mastery Specified by the Course Objectives
         Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Processing identifies six levels of mastery. Is the learner to only:
  • Need to recognize the factors used in determining the use of a specific problem approach?
  • Do they need to be able consider multiple variables that must be considered?
  • Is it necessary that they develop a approach to performing the task?
        The higher the level of mastery required, the more time learners will need to spend applying and practicing the instructional components. Each learner should be given several opportunities to practice/implement the focal points presented in the lesson.

        The use of highly interactive instructional programs frequently involves individual or small group practice activities designed to apply the learning and build confidence. During these activities it is critical for instructors to monitor each learner in order to provide feedback to make sure no one gets off track prior to the next class lesson.

The ADDIE model of Systematic Learning

       The ADDIE model is a generic, systematic, step-by-step framework used by instructional designers, developers, and trainers to achieve a level of professional course development that does not occur if the designer proceeds in a haphazard and unstructured way. The goal is to ensure that:
  • Learners will achieve the goals of the course,
  • Provides for the evaluation of learner's needs,
  • Demands the design and development of training materials and integrate,
  • Requires an evaluation of effectiveness of the training program by incorporating specific, measurable outcomes.
       Most of the current instructional design models used today, such as Instructional Systems Design (ISD), Instructional Systems Design & Development (ISDD), Systems Approach to Training (SAT) or Instructional Design (ID), are variations or spin-offs of the original ADDIE model.

       The generic ADDIE model, stands for -
Analysis,
Design,
Development,
Implementation,
Evaluation;

       Each step, stage or phase leads into the next. Designers depend on a process of receiving ongoing feedback from Focus Groups throughout all phases of the ADDIE model. This allows the designer to make make changes without delaying process to the next design stage.

Analysis phase -  Define and develop a clear understanding of the learners
needs, constraints, existing knowledge, skills, and desired outcome of the
project.

Design Phase - Identify specific learning objectives, topic outcomes, content, presentation methods and media, learner exercises and assessment criteria to
be used. There should be specific criteria of the knowledge level (prerequisite
courses) the learner must have passed prior to registering for the course.

Development phase - The beginning of the production process of the materials
to be used in the training.

Implementation phase - Field testing the materials by actually presenting and/or delivering the developed plan to a small sample of the intended learning audience.

Evaluation phase - Assess the effectiveness of the topic content and training
materials utilized in the training program. Based on the feedback, revise prior
to the next implementation or presentation.

        Learning how to perform complex motor activities requires an individual to focus on developing a wide range of automatic muscle skills/responses in order to perform the technical aspects of performing complex jumps, spins, turns, edges, and other movements associated with each discipline of figure skating.

      Research is being performed on how the actual learning process occurs in sports. To become more effective in teaching skating skills, coaches need to become familiar with the actual process an individual, of any age, must perform to acquire sets of motor skills.

      Athletes in some sports (i.e. figure skating, gymnastics, diving. etc.) express the belief that they receive the maximum benefit from private instruction rather then from group instruction. This is interesting since the vast majority of classroom education from elementary school to post graduate seminars is delivered in a group setting.  Most team and individual sports (football, track and field, tennis, swimming, etc. in high school and college are taught in groups as opposed to an exclusive individual/personal coaching environment.

      There also seems to be a widely shared opinion that top skaters excel in multi-tasking, especially as the sport has moved towards emphasizing the presentation aspect as a necessary quality to succeed in international competitions. Refer to Multi-tasking in Sports

Systematic learning
          Systematic learning is based on a system perspective. The concept requires understanding the applying previously acquired skill sets to the acquisition of nw skills. This avoids the considerable waste of time from approaching the acquisition new skills from a zero perspective.

Note: sometimes there are conflicting thoughts about how the process
should be conducted. This should have been confronted in the very
early stages of the course's instructional design.


Recommended Reading:

PDF Systematic Learning Process Instructional design, starting with the Systematic Learning Process, or PAF. We consider PAF so fundamental, that it is presented in all of our programs.

Training and Development: Systematic Learning
May 9, 2012 ... Part 1 in a series of lessons learned in the training process.

Systematically increasing contextual interference  Systematically increasing contextual interference is beneficial for learning sport skills. Porter JM, Magill RA. Department of Kinesiology, Southern Illinois

Functional Path Training: Systematic Sport Development It is learning to tune into the body and it's inherent wisdom to produce rhythmic ... Systematic Sport Development Model of training and injury rehabilitation.

PDF A Systematic Observation of Youth Amateur The analysis of the coaching behaviors in sport settings will provide help to recognize, in particular, how the coach facilitates learning for the athlete.

References:

A systematic review of how theories explain learning What do we want to know? Behavior management has been the focus of considerable research, publication and professional development

Ambidexterity - Two Things At Once - Southpaw Ambidextrous   It is the ability to use both your hands with equal ease or facility. It is quite advantageous in certain sports and martial arts to be able to use both sides of your body equally.


Resources:

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
  
Learning Considerations
PDF  Attentional Focus
PDF  Spatial Disorientation
PDF  Effects of Mood on Performance
PDF  Confidence through Motivation
PDF  Transfer of Learning Issues

   
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