can skills can be transferred from an existing source to a new
Skills from a previously
acquired task can be transferred to a related target task. An inductive
logic program can be used to analyze the learning experience of source
task. This allows a set of rules/principles to be developed that apply
to the first task and, if appropriate, apply the same rules to the
The target task learner
these rules through taking advice. Be advised that the source of the
advice from outside guidance that may
be imperfect. The more similarities that exist between the source and
the more likely that there will be a successful transfer.
Teaching a scientific
course requires the learner to understand/comprehending a system as an
concept rather than at a level of external observation. Transcending
superficial appearances to extract
deep principles is as critical to science as it is difficult to achieve.
Reinforcement Learning (RL)
There is an assumption that tasks
in the same domain tend to be related. This may not be correct. Even
that are quite different may have general
similarities, such as conditions under which an action should be taken.
The desired goal is to transfer general tasks/skills from a source in
order to speed up learning of a new but similar task that is targeted.
It is possible that even when RL
tasks shared skills, transfer between them may be difficult because
differences in action sets and reward
structures create differences in sharing the skills. Individuals
who are able to make use of
transferred information must continue the learning process by filling
in gaps in the transfer. A transfer might produce information/skills
is irrelevant or even incorrect. It is important to realize when it is
necessary to modify
or ignore imperfectly transferred information.
An important tool in facilitating
transfer is produce a map of source and target tasks. The
describes the structural similarities between the tasks and might also
simple notations that reflect the differences between the tasks.
Communication Skills must be
establish to create an environment for skill transfer to occur
The ability to establish effective
interpersonal communication is the foundation of how humans interact.
importance for innovation and change can hardly be overemphasized.
Communication is a both a
science and an art. It consists of developing two-way exchange of
information that involves giving and receiving information
through different channels. The following basic principles apply for
communication is complex task. When we listen to or read someone
who is attempting to communicate with us, we often filter what's being
said through a wall of our own
opinions. The most common barriers to communication with others
are our own ideas,
preconceived opinions, stereotypes, and prejudices.
- Know your audience.
- Know your purpose.
- Know your topic.
- Anticipate objections.
- Present a rounded picture.
- Achieve credibility with your audience.
- Follow through on what you say.
- Communicate a little at a time.
- Present information in several ways.
- Develop a practical, useful way to get feedback.
- Use multiple communication techniques.
Principles of Effective
- 10% of what they read
- 20% of what they hear
- 30% of what they see
- 40% of what they hear and see
Whether making an oral
presentation or writing a report. the same basic principles apply:
- Outline the topic you are trying to cover into two
- The first
part should give broad background information,
- The second part provides
a detailed summary.
- Persuasion depends on clarity and simplicity. Avoid
the use of jargon
and buzz words.
- Be prepared to immediately back up claims or facts when
- Anticipated objections and incorporate a response into your
program or presentation.
- Address all relevant aspects of a topic.
- Use graphics and audiovisuals appropriately.
- Do not oversell or overstate your case. Make
effective use of understatement.
- This is an opportunity to find out what people think about
Ideas Need to be Sold
Ideas just do not sell
themselves. As a communicator, it is your job to persuade others to
recognize that the idea is deserves their support. Most important
is convincing them to adopt the idea and take act on it. People
must be convinced
that a particular idea or innovation has enough merit to warrant
It takes Effort to Sell Ideas
It may take more effort to sell an idea
than it took to create the idea. New ideas seldom
stand out from the clutter of information that bombards us on a daily
basis. The appropriate
users must be targeted and shown how the idea relates to their needs
Receiving and giving feedback is
one of the most crucial parts of good communication.
Like any other activity, there are specific skills that can enhance
Attentive listening must occur first for valid feedback to occur.
eliminating audience distractions. Physical distractions and
seriously impair listening. These distractions may take many
loud noises, stuffy rooms, overcrowded conditions, uncomfortable
bad lighting, etc.
As the presenter, you must
speak clearly and use a multimedia presentation to make sure you cover
all of the points you feel are important. Prepared notes should be
passed out at the start of the presentation. Ask yourself how
well you think your presentation has answered the following questions:
- What evidence have you presented
to support your statements?
- What assumptions have you made?
- What effect do you intent for
the information to have on the audience?
- Can the material be organized
- Are there examples is illustrate
what is said?
- Have you summarized the
main points of the message of the presentation?
Messages should be
clear and accurate, and sent in a way that encourages
retention, not rejection.
Use Verbal Feedback Even If Nonverbal Is Positive
Everyone needs reassurance that they are reading nonverbal
correctly, whether a smile means "You're doing great," "You're doing
than most beginners," or "You'll catch on eventually."
Focus Feedback On Behavior Rather Than On Personality.
better to comment on specific behavior than to characterize a pattern
behavior. For example, instead of calling a colleague
specify your complaint: "You don't return phone calls; this
problems both in and outside your office."
Focus Feedback On Description Rather Than Judgment.
tells what happened. Judgment evaluates what happened. For
example, in evaluating a report don't say, "This is a lousy
Instead, try: "The report doesn't focus on the information that I
think needs emphasis," or "This report seems to have a lot of
and spelling mistakes."
Make Feedback Specific Rather Than General.
If feedback is
specific, the receiver knows what activity to continue or change.
When feedback is general, the receiver doesn't know what to do
For example, in an office situation, instead of saying "These folders
not arranged correctly," it's better feedback to say, "These should be
arranged chronologically instead of alphabetically."
In Giving Feedback, Consider the Needs and Abilities of
Give the amount of information the receiver can use and focus feedback
on activities the receiver has control over. It's fruitless to
the level of activity, if the decision to grant the necessary money for
materials, personnel or technology is made at a different level.
Check to See if the Receiver Heard What You Meant to
If the information is important enough to send, make sure the person
it. One way of doing this is to say, "I'm wondering if I said
clearly enough. What did you understand me to say?" or "This is
I hear you saying. Is that right?"
The Transfer Principle
Benefits to Coaches and
The Transfer Principle suggests that
learning and performing gross and fine motor
skill can positive or negative effect the learning process of
another. A positive transfer of training from
skills used in practice to their use in competition is critical for
athletic success. This
principle should serve as a guide for selecting off-ice training
activities for developing on-ice skills. The concept also helps in
designing strategies that have a positive
impact in competitive situations.
Coaches can benefit from knowing how to apply the
Elements to Skills Necessary to Compete
Select appropriate fitness training activities to build
necessary balance of fitness components necessary for specific sports.
Select training drills and activities that, collectively,
possess common elements with competitive sport conditions.
Distinguish between what features of skills are being
strengthened by certain training activities, and which features are
Train movement concepts and perceptions that apply to more
than one skill, event, or sport.
Emphasize training activities that best develop the
qualities that athletes need to excel.
Most closely match training activities with competition.
Tips about the transfer of motor skills are
found at Transfer
Coaching tips must apply the concept of matching training activities
with the demands of sports if maximizing results are to be
- Sport analysis. Consider the overall demands of the
sport of figure skating.
What does it take to be outstanding? Physical, emotional, and mental
demands contribute to being successful. Training should emphasize
supporting the most important qualities that skaters at all skill
levels should develop.
- Skill analysis. Identify the key skills necessary
success. Perform fitness and agility tests to help focus on the areas
where athletes need improvement, and select training activities to
- Practice vs. competitive conditions. Always consider
the differences between practice activities and competitive conditions.
Beyond building the fundamentals, devise training activities and
conditions that most closely match the emotional intensity that the
expect to encounter in test and competitive situations.
- Mechanics. Understand the most efficient movements
that underlay the mastery of highly skilled motor performances.
Correcting movement deviations and
inefficient patterns in practice is essential, even for such basic
skills as stroking, skating on edges, and especially in performing
- Movement qualities. Develop the timing and rhythms
of skills can greatly assist the athlete in acquiring the
mechanical/motor skills. Training activities that incorporate rhythms
and sequences used in competition will speed the development of
automatic muscle/nerve memory responses.
- Identify cause and effects. Coaches sometimes
develop training activities to correct symptoms of motor skill errors
they observe when athletes compete. Training should focus on correcting
the causes of
mental as well as physical errors.
Positive or Negatively Affects
of Skill Specialization
- Physical capability. Athletes
sometimes have limited capabilities of executing skills due to
a lack of strength, power, or other fitness deficiencies or abilities.
Coaches who can identify those limitations can
better create practice activities and exercises designed to correct or
mitigate core problems.
Learning or regularly
performing a skill can affect, either positively or negatively, the
learning of a second skill.
generally occurs when the two skills are similar in some way. Thus
having previously mastered one of the skills, learning the second skill
should be much easier. Coaches can be a positive force in insuring that
the athlete understands the similarities between the two skills
and there by stressing the importance of acquiring the basics of the
first skill so that
they transfer more easily into the second skill.
occurs when having acquired one skill, it posses a barrier (obstacle)
to learning the second skill. This can happen when a stimulus common to
skills requires a different response. Negative transfer can be avoided
athlete is made aware of the differences and the practice sessions
are tailored similar to simulate situations that only require one
Six categories of skill transfer
have been identified:
- Transfer between skills
- such as all racket sports
transferring skills learnt in training to a competitive environment
- Abilities linked to skills
- balance to perform a good landing in gymnastics
- Limb to limb
(bilateral) - striking a football with the right or left foot
- Principle to skill
- the principles of defensive play in rugby are similar to football
- Stages of learning
- skills that are learnt in the cognitive
phase will then be built upon in the associative phase.
the Knowledge Transfer Problem
A central issue in acquiring knowledge is its appropriate transfer
beyond the contexts and contents of first acquisition. In contrast to
dominant "common elements" transfer theory, an interpretive perspective
is developed, according to which "appropriate transfer" is a concept
socioculturally rather than objectively defined.
Skill Acquisition Review
of research conducted in the past ten years on cognitive skill
acquisition. It covers the initial stages of acquiring a single
principle or rule, the initial stages of acquiring a collection of
interacting pieces of knowledge, and the final stages of acquiring a
skill, wherein practice causes increases in speed and accuracy.
- PDF EFF
Research Principle: A Contextualized Approach
Research on the transfer of learning. teachers
starts with real-life contexts and is weaved into all stages of every
teaching and learning process. Instruction and assessment are aimed
directly at the skills and knowledge adults need to perform tasks they
have identified as important and meaningful to them. The focus is on
the application rather than on the possession of basic skills and
- PDF Transfer as the
Productive Use of Acquired Knowledge Taking into account the recent
literature, this article defines
transfer as the broad, productive, and supported use of acquired
knowledge, skills, and motivations in new contexts and learning tasks.
As an illustration, an intervention study is briefly discussed. This
study shows the possibility of designing a powerful learning
environment that yields transfer effects in accordance with this
reconceptualized perspective on transfer.
- PDF Structural
Transfer of Cognitive Skills - Stanford It
is common for humans to reuse knowledge gained in early settings to aid
learning in ones they encounter later. This phenomenon
is known as transfer in cognitive psychology. Transfer follows automatically from its use of
structured concepts and skill.
Volume 1(2): January, 1996. SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING.
This edition of Coaching Science Abstracts reviews articles concerned
with the Principle of Specificity.
- Specificity | Fitness and Health
Nov. 28, 2006 ... Specificity states that your training should move
general to highly specific training. It also dictates that in order to
improve a particular skill.
Focusing on Specificity Training
Focusing on Specificity Training Written by NFPT Staff Writer
Friday, 03 February 2012 00:00. The
personal trainer will encounter athletes of all stripes.
Key Sports Training Principles Guide Sound Coaching
Sports training principles offer general coaching guidelines for making
training ... The Transfer Principle provides guidance on how training
activities can speed improvement.
of Training Principles for Instruction
Training. Principles for Instructional. Design. Richard E. Clark.
Alexander Voogel. Richard E. Clark is Professor of Educational
Nov. 1, 2000 ... Transfer of
Training — That almost
magical link between classroom and something which is supposed to
happen in the real world. It helps the learners to become accustomed to
using their newly acquired
knowledge and skills in different situations, thus encouraging transfer
learning to the intended target/objective of the training goals. There
are two main principles that work with transfer of learning:
of Interval Training | Interval Training Sessions
- The variation should not be too easy.
- The shift or transfer should be progressive but rapid.
training these principles are used to prepare the body for work in
specific energy transfer systems relevant to the particular sport.
The following internet
links have been
gleaned from personal communications
public institutions and athletic
have a web presence with information concerning team
materials are copy protected.
The limited use of the
materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given
for the source of the materials.