The Learning Process
San Diego Figure Skating Communications
a non-profit educational organization
Principles of Training
Established Principles of Training
Training is an important part of the learning process that requires a balanced and broad spectrum of skill sets. It is more challenging to train individuals with high expectations, especially if they feel it is unnecessary to spend their time in any training program based on mastering the "fundamentals".
A trainer working with beginners can introduce a system of training methods that can be consistently used throughout their pursuit of improvement. Leaders of training sessions generally do not welcome individuals who disrupt a group/team learning environment. Trainers aspire to create an group learning environment in which the participants understand they are receiving the tools and a blueprint of how to practice when not under the supervision of a coach/trainer.
There are 7 basic principles of training that are critical to the successful commutation of ideas that trainers can utilize to motivate learners of all ages and skill levels:
1. Establish Control - You need to
establish positive comfort levels as you push individuals to venture
outside their existing comfort zone. The
dynamics of human interaction will cause anxieties to emerge. The
challenge for the leader of the training is to introduce new activities
and explore new topics. This can invite
disagreements and challenges from participants. It is important as a
leader to acknowledge you may not have all the answers. Challenge your
participants to listen to new ideas and expose them to relentless
examine the documentation that allows support or rejection of a stated
2. Act as a Role
Model - As a trainer there is a responsibility to model
techniques of learning and being a leader who promotes an environment
of active participation and openness in examination of ideas and facts
that are promoted as being unchangeable. Don't discourage the
eagerness, energy, interest, curiosity, and
respect for the contributions and knowledge of others. As a role model
the only sure way to gain credibility is to act in a manner that you
are expecting of others.
3. Be Flexible - Every training leader
needs to cultivate their ability to interpret accurately and understand
the needs of the participants. Being rigid in your approach as a leader
will only make the participants feel that they must become a "parrot"
of the ideas. Adhering to the stated training objectives may facilitate
staying on the time scheduled for the presentation. However, to a
distinct scheduling flaw to not allow for an extensive question and
discussion period that should be the exploration of how ideas covered
may be integrated into a immediate training benefit.
4. Participants need to buy
into the concepts - Probe participants with appropriate
questions that will stimulate ideas and discussions that involves
everyone. Explore creative
ways to involve participants by using small groups that
will involve advice/idea sharing, or facilitating networking
5. Make it Yours - The most important dynamic of being a trainer and facilitator is to share your personal experiences. Share successes and failures that come from personal experience are very effective and to heightened the participants being engaged in the learning process. Use your own experience a a means of encouraging participants to share their personal experiences.
6. Application of Concepts -
Participants in a training session should be able to apply what they
just learned by implementing their new
skills into their daily work so they see how the benefits. If possible,
allow time in the session so that the participants
can practice, to try out the new skills and new behaviors in a class
simulation where they can receive comments and suggests from classmates.
7. Accomplish training goals -
As the trainer, required participants to answer a survey that is
designed to see if the training met the expectations of the
participants. Discover what goals,
objectives, challenges, and issues they consider as most important to
It is very important that coaches develop their training program based on well established training principles that are applicable to their specific sport. There are generally agreed upon guidelines that can consistently be applied successfully to all sports, including skaters.
The following information
best recommendations from the
sport scientists and generalizations good coaching practices that have
evolved in the sport of figure skating.
Exercise physiology is
the study of the
effects of exercise on the human body. Unfortunately the principles are
sometimes misapplied in sports. It is essential that coaches
understand how these principles operate
in sports practice and
Training Principles for ice skating include:
The Balanced Principle is a broadly applied principle that concerns achieving the right proportions of training activities.
The Individualization Principle concerns adjustments in training based on needs of individual athletes.
Overload Principle provides guidance about training intensity and progression.
The Recovery Principle concerns rest and recovery between training bouts.
The Reversibility Principle provides guidance about detraining when athletes stop working out.
The Specificity Principle dictates how training changes athletes' bodies to prepare for the demands of their sports.
The Transfer Principle provides guidance on how training activities can speed up sport learning and performance in competition.
The Variation Principle provides direction about training cycles that prevent problems such as plateaus and over training effects.
Recommended Reading List:
Sample Workshop Registration Application
Principles of Training Athletes
Developing Course Materials
The Law of Counter Force | Team Lovato April 21, 2011 Counter Force is an important concept in all martial arts such as jiu jitsu, boxing, and muay thai.
PPT Forces & Newton's Laws The Law of Inertia; The Law of Acceleration; The Law of Force-Counterforce; Normal force, Tension, and friction; The vector nature of forces.
PDF Chapter 4 This chapter is about Newton's Three Laws.
The History and Philosophy of Astronomy Lecture 14: Isaac Newton July 27, 2010 Founding Father of Physics. Book 1: Basic Laws. Newton's 3rd Law of Motion: Force = Counter-force.
Training Plan for Success
The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
All materials are copy protected.
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.