The Learning Process
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  Principles of Training

Established Principles of Training      
        Training is an important part of the learning process that requires a balanced and broad spectrum of skill sets. It is more challenging to train individuals with high expectations, especially if they feel it is unnecessary to spend their time in any training program based on mastering the "fundamentals".

         A trainer working with beginners can introduce a system of training methods that can be consistently used throughout their pursuit of improvement. Leaders of training sessions generally do not welcome individuals who disrupt a group/team learning environment.  Trainers aspire to create an group learning environment in which the participants understand they are receiving the tools and a blueprint of how to practice when not under the supervision of a coach/trainer.

         There are 7 basic principles of training that are critical to the successful commutation of ideas that trainers can utilize to motivate learners of all ages and skill levels:

1. Establish Control - You need to establish positive comfort levels as you push individuals to venture outside their existing comfort zone. The dynamics of human interaction will cause anxieties to emerge. The challenge for the leader of the training is to introduce new activities and explore new topics. This can invite disagreements and challenges from participants. It is important as a leader to acknowledge you may not have all the answers. Challenge your participants to listen to new ideas and expose them to relentless examine the documentation that allows support or rejection of a stated hypothesis.

2. Act as a Role Model -  As a trainer there is a responsibility to model techniques of learning and being a leader who promotes an environment of active participation and openness in examination of ideas and facts that are promoted as being unchangeable. Don't discourage the eagerness, energy, interest, curiosity, and respect for the contributions and knowledge of others. As a role model the only sure way to gain credibility is to act in a manner that you are expecting of others.

3. Be Flexible - Every training leader needs to cultivate their ability to interpret accurately and understand the needs of the participants. Being rigid in your approach as a leader will only make the participants feel that they must become a "parrot" of the ideas. Adhering to the stated training objectives may facilitate staying on the time scheduled for the presentation. However, to a distinct scheduling flaw to not allow for an extensive question and discussion period that should be the exploration of how ideas covered may be integrated into a immediate training benefit.

4. Participants need to buy into the concepts -  Probe participants with appropriate questions that will stimulate ideas and discussions that involves everyone. Explore creative ways to involve participants by using small groups that will involve advice/idea sharing, or facilitating networking possibilities.

5. Make it Yours - The most important dynamic of being a trainer and facilitator is to share your personal experiences. Share successes and failures that come from personal experience are very effective and to heightened the participants being engaged in the learning process. Use your own experience a a means of encouraging participants to share their personal experiences.

6. Application of Concepts - Participants in a training session should be able to apply what they just learned by implementing their new skills into their daily work so they see how the benefits. If possible, allow time in the session so that the participants can practice, to try out the new skills and new behaviors in a class simulation where they can receive comments and suggests from classmates.

7. Accomplish training goals - As the trainer, required participants to answer a survey that is designed to see if the training met the expectations of the participants. Discover what goals, objectives, challenges, and issues they consider as most important to them.

        Training is not easy work, but if you keep in mind the above principles of training, you will find  you'll become better at inspiring and developing motivation among those who attend the training sessions.
        It is very important that coaches develop their training program based on well established training principles that are applicable to their specific sport. There are generally agreed upon guidelines that can consistently be applied successfully to all sports, including skaters.

       The following information summarizes the best recommendations from the sport scientists and generalizations good coaching practices that have evolved in the sport of figure skating.

       It is advisable consider these principles as a collective body of data and not rigidity apply them them to figure skating. Experience and good judgment are essential in order to optimize the once training and maximize the benefits of off-ice exercise guidelines.

       The three commonly used training principles are based on exercise physiology:

  • Specificity
  • Overload
  • Recovery

       Exercise physiology is the study of the effects of exercise on the human body. Unfortunately the principles are sometimes misapplied in sports. It is essential that coaches understand how these principles operate in sports practice and competitions.

       While it is important to know how to use these principles, skill learning, movement mechanics, and other areas that strengthen sports performance must be integrated into the training programs of athletes at their respective levels of competition. See Mental Training and Sport Biomechanics.

Training Principles
        Training Principles for ice skating include:

The Balanced Principle is a broadly applied principle that concerns achieving the right proportions of training activities.

The Individualization Principle  concerns adjustments in training based on needs of individual athletes.

Overload Principle provides guidance about training intensity and progression.

The Recovery Principle concerns rest and recovery between training bouts.

The Reversibility Principle  provides guidance about detraining when athletes stop working out.

The Specificity Principle dictates how training changes athletes' bodies to prepare for the demands of their sports.

The Transfer Principle provides guidance on how training activities can speed up sport learning and performance in competition.

The Variation Principle provides direction about training cycles that prevent problems such as plateaus and over training effects.

Recommended Reading List:

Skating Workshops

Sample Workshop Registration Application

Principles of Training Athletes

Developing Course Materials


The Law of Counter Force | Team Lovato   April 21, 2011  Counter Force is an important concept in all martial arts such as jiu jitsu, boxing, and muay thai.

PPT Forces & Newton's Laws  The Law of Inertia; The Law of Acceleration; The Law of Force-Counterforce; Normal force, Tension, and friction; The vector nature of forces.

PDF Chapter 4  This chapter is about Newton's Three Laws.

The History and Philosophy of Astronomy Lecture 14: Isaac Newton July 27, 2010  Founding Father of Physics. Book 1: Basic Laws. Newton's 3rd Law of Motion: Force = Counter-force.

Training Plan for Success

Program Development


The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Process of Learning
Principles of Training
Training Young Athletes
Establishing Goals & Objectives
Purpose of a Syllabus
Purpose of a Lesson Plan
Focus Groups
PDF  Trainability of Children
PDF  Trainability of Young Athletes
PDF  Writing Objectives

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

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