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Principles of Sports Training

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Principles of Training
      Training is necessary to constantly improve on an athlete's performance. The principles of training include: 
  • Specificity -  The target of the training is a specific joint action. It is possible to have good mobility or flexibility in one area, but have less mobility. Exercising a shoulder may further improve the shoulder's mobility, but it will not affect hip mobility. The amount and nature of the mobility training required by each athlete will vary according to the individual athlete's event requirements and his/her individual range of movement for each joint action. It may be necessary to measure the range of movement for particular joint actions to determine the present range and future improvement.
  • Overload - Each exercise should be designed to extend the strength and range of movement. Improvements can only be achieved by strive to expand our upper limits. Exercises designed to be performed at or below our physical limitations may increase our consistency and stamina. Overloading a muscle will only achieve strengthening when it is forced to operate beyond its customary intensity. The load must be progressively increased, in small increments, in order to achieve an adaptive responses to training.
  • Recovery - A period of rest is essential for the body to recover from the training and to allow adaptation to take place.
  • Adaptation - Adaptation occurs during the recovery period after the training session is completed.

      When an athlete ceases mobility training for the competitive season, his/her ranges of movement will decline over time compared to those athletes who participate in an off-season exercise program or participate other physical activities on a regular basis.

      The effect of the exercising stops when the exercising ceases. The loss occurs gradually at approximately one third of the rate of acquisition of mobility or strengthening. It is necessary that an athlete continues strength training throughout the competitive season. However, the amount of exercising can proceed at a much reduced volume as they start the process of peaking for competition.

      Research suggests that training programs should limit periods of complete inactivity to no more than two to three weeks. When the end of the competitive season occurs, it is recommended that prolonged periods of inactivity should be avoided and a "maintenance" training program should commence.

Recommended Reading:



The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Principles of Sports Training:
Principles of Training Athletes
Figure Skating Skill Development
Stages of Learning Sports
Skill Acquisition Timing
Sports Biomechanics
The Balanced Principle for Training
Sports Skills & Mechanical Techniques
General Physical Preparedness
Individual Differences
The Overload Principle in Training
The Recovery Principle
The Reversibility Principle
Principle of Specificity
Transference of Knowledge & Skills
Training Variation
Psychomotor Domain
Objectives of Psychomotor Goals

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