of Athletic Training
is the acquisition of skill or knowledge. Memory is the
ability to recall information by lectures, demonstrations, reading, and
conversational interactions. Just
being able to memorize facts/information does not suggest that you
actually understand (comprehend) the material and can apply the
information to solve problems, postulate solutions, and formulate new
Principles of Training
is necessary to constantly improve on an
athlete's performance. The principles of training include:
- Specificity -
The target of the training is a specific joint action. It is possible
to have good mobility or flexibility in one area, but have less
mobility. Exercising a shoulder may further improve the shoulder's
mobility, but it will not affect hip mobility. The amount and nature of
the mobility training required by each athlete will vary according to
the individual athlete's event requirements and his/her individual
range of movement for each joint action. It may be necessary to measure
the range of movement for particular joint actions to determine the
present range and future improvement.
- Overload - Each
exercise should be designed to extend the strength and range of
movement. Improvements can only be achieved by strive to expand our
upper limits. Exercises designed to be performed at or below our
physical limitations may increase our consistency and stamina.
Overloading a muscle will only achieve strengthening when it is forced
to operate beyond its customary intensity. The load must be
progressively increased, in small increments, in order to achieve an
adaptive responses to training.
- Recovery - A
period of rest is essential for the body to recover from the training
and to allow adaptation to take place.
There are three important types of
- Adaptation - Adaptation
occurs during the recovery period after the
- Endurance training - or aerobic training
is designed to improve cardiovascular fitness and capacity.
- Strength training - typically
involves activities that use weights, bands and cables, and/or
the weight of the body against gravity.
- Mental training - prepares an
individual for the rigorous demands and stress of competing.
psychosocial considerations in improving and
perfecting performance in every sport and in all other life activities.
There are six domains
which encompassed the areas of expertise of a certified athletic
- Prevention of injuries is a major
function that may include preexisting conditions and prior injuries.
- Clinical evaluation and diagnosis is
required for certification. A trainer should be able to recognize,
evaluate, and access the overall physical health and level of
conditioning of athletes of all ages. This includes determining their
existing skills and reducing possible injuries by recommended a
training schedule that increases the possibility of injuries.
- Immediate care (first aid) often
must be administered on the playing field or in the locker room while
awaiting assistance from emergency medical providers.
- Treatment, rehabilitation, and
reconditioning requires knowledge of the musculoskeletal system
and common injuries that may occur to athletes in specific sports. This
includes a range of therapeutic exercises that offer the best
outcome(s) for the athletes.
- Organization and administration of a
team or sports department is essential at the level of a high school,
college, or professional team.
- Professional Development - As a
trainer, athletes will look up to you for advice on their moral,
ethical, and financial concerns. It is your responsibilities to help
them resolve these issues and refer them to other sources for advice if
you are concerned with a possibility of conflict of your responsibility
to your employer.
down at the end of a season requires proactive ways to prepare for the
When an athlete ceases training
for the competitive season, the mobility acquired and his/her range of
movements will begin to decline compared to those athletes who
participate in an off-season exercise program designed to retain their
mobility. This can also be accomplished by participating in other
physical activities and/or sports.
of the exercising stops when the exercising ceases. The loss occurs
gradually at approximately one third of the rate of acquisition of
mobility or strengthening. It is necessary that an athlete continues
strength training throughout the competitive season. However, the
amount of exercising can proceed at a much reduced volume as they start
the process of peaking for competition.
Research suggests that training programs should limit periods of
complete inactivity to no more than two to three weeks. When the end of
the competitive season occurs, it is recommended that prolonged periods
of inactivity should be avoided and a "maintenance" training program
links have been
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