San Diego Figure Skating Communications
a non-profit educational organization
Principle of Varying Training
process of training is a cyclical - tear down, recovery,
super-compensation, and buildup or adaptation. Training involves both general and event-specific
exercises to develop the necessary skill sets an athlete requires to be
successful in their sport.
matter how good a training program, the athlete will become bored and
complacent with the training exercises. The sameness of the routine
acts as a disincentive which affects the expected improvement.
goal of the training is to challenge the athlete by introducing new
training exercises. The body response is renewed enthusium that
produces a response to the increased stress load. This adaptative
response can be stimulated through the process of changing the focus of
the exercises after six or eight weeks.
initial response to training is fatigue after each exercise session.
exercise sessions ends, a period of rest or recovery must occur prior
to ccommencing another session. Each session of recovery and adaptation
takes the athlete's body to a higher level of fitness. The stress load is should be increased in a slow,
systematic manner to allow gradual adaptation of the body.
If the training load is not great enough there is little or no increase in fitness level or athletic performance. A loading that is too great can result in injury or illness to the athlete.
The Variation Principle
The most well known method of practice variability
training in phases. Typically, an annual sports training program
includes phases of training for conditioning, intensive sport-specific
work, in-season maintenance, and an off-season regimen. Training in
phases, or periods, is called periodization.
Note: include anticipated planned changes in exercises, intensity, volume, and other training variables that target the athlete's goals for peaking during the competitive season.
Adjustments in training are very effective when used for skill learning, as well as for fitness training. Changes within a range or class of skills is well supported by Schema Theory. Refer to Variation in Training.
This principle does not conflict with the Specificity and Overload Principles. Specificity is about how the athlete's body adapts to the type of training program used, and training should be similar to the demands of a sport. Practice variability simply suggests that athletes should not perform exactly the same regimen each day. It supports specificity because competitive conditions present different situations that demand slightly different responses. The Overload Principle implies that gradual and progressive changes in training must occur in order for improvement to take place.
Variation Training Tips:
The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
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The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.