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 Peak Performance Training

    The goal of a sports fitness training plan is to prepare athletes for the physical demands of competition. Physical fitness for one sport is not exactly the same as for another. Training activities must be designed to specifically target the athlete's energy, muscular development, and motor muscle skill set requirements to be successful in the target sport.

     Energy sources for sports competition involve the use of oxygen (aerobic) for activities that are continuous over a period of time, no oxygen (anaerobic) for short-term, explosive events, or a combination of both. Muscular requirements involve how much strength, power, endurance, and flexibility are needed for a sport. Motor (movement) efficiency requires the precise coordination of movements, or skill, which is controlled by the brain and nervous system.

Source - Olympic Discus Champion Ludvig Danek, Jan Svenden (L), Denise Wood (R)

Fitness and Training Programs
      
The objectives of Peak Performance Training (PPT) is to reduce the risk of injury while enhancing the performance goals of established to be successful in a specific sport. This involves an educational program that also inspires the individual to establish a purpose designed to achieve optimum health after ceasing an intense competitive training program.

       For an effective fitness program both time and resources must be committed to carefully design a regimen of specialized activities that are progressively intensified to condition athletes for peak performance. To further boost each athlete's success, each coach sex, age, body characteristics, general healthy and fitness, plus an analysis of their emotional and mental status, information processing ability, general physical coordination, and gross/fine motor skills,

       While genetics pays a part in every athlete's potential, the training they receive determines if they will be able to make the best use of their potential.  A well designed training program should begin with basics body conditioning and overall fitness. Specific exercises are available to produce overall positive physical conditioning of the athlete's body. The objective should include:
  • More efficient use of oxygen,
  • Improved use of fat for energy,
  • Increased muscle size to exert greater force,
  • Improved blood flow,
  • Increased lung capacity,
  • Increased size of the heart to pump more blood in one stroke,
  • Better coordination and reaction reflexes
  • Stronger bones, ligaments, and tendons to reduce injuries.
  • Enhanced flexibility
  • Enhanced strength related to body mass index
  • Enhanced short and long term stamina/endurance
Effect of Muscle Skills and Coordination
       Gross and fine motor muscle coordination can be used as a predictor of sports abilities as an intelligence test is used as a predictor of academic performance.

       A fitness training program is not complete if it only seeks improve the athlete's physiological functions. A complete training and fitness plan should include activities designed to improve psychological preparation, specific skill sets for the sport, and other qualities that will transfer to sport performance.

       Parents should understand that there are no reliable tests that a coach can administer to evaluate a young athlete to predict the ultimate potential as a beginner, Some individuals who do well early in learning may not do well later.

       Young athletes can be evaluated for general gross muscle coordination, strength, and size for their age grouping,  If an individual is considering a team sport, parents and coaches should strive to participate on a team where the athlete is a better match for the conditioning and strengthening activities that are required to participate in the sport, This may mean that the athlete needs to have specialize skill coaching to acquire the level of skills demanded by the league to prevent injuries and destruction of the athlete's self confidence.

Conditioning and proper strengthening play an important role in a PPT program
       Each individualize sport has developed training programs that take into account for differences in motor abilities, gender, personalities, attitudes, motivational challenges, genetic potential, medical history, previous athletic experience, and other factors such as financial resources, variation in training facilities, and other factors that affect opportunity to train and participate in competitions.

      Peak Performance Training programs should be developed and monitored by professional trainer who has the credentials to supervise the following types of training:
  • Speed Development
  • Neuromuscular Facilitation
  • Agility Training
  • Injury Prevention
  • Core Strengthening
  • Strength Training
  • Flexibility Improvement
  • Plyometric Training
      Understanding the various physical, mental, and emotional stages experienced by young athletes is an the most important consideration of a Peak Performance Trainers. Each individual athlete is unique and as a maturing adolescent require a specific training plan that considers and addresses the development stage of the child/young adult. Sometimes the goals and objectives of parents and coaches may create conflicts that the trainer must address.

Recommended Reading:

Helping Athletes Find Their "Zone of Excellence"  Wes Sime, Ph.D., M.P.H ., Thomas W. Allen, Ed.D., and Catalina Fazzano, Ph.D. Draft submitted for publication, Biofeedback, 2000

Nutrition for the Athlete Becoming an elite athlete requires good genes, good training and conditioning and a sensible diet. Optimal nutrition is essential for peak performance.

Race Day Preparation - How to Peak for Races and Events  Race Day Preparation: Peaking for Races or Events. Peaking for a big race ... Recreational athletes can easily have multiple peaks of a lesser degree. This is ... Training three days before the race never helps you performance.

Peaking for optimal performance:  Multiple events; Understanding that the key element of the physical preparation of athletes is the taper period in the weeks immediately preceding competition.

References:

Skating Skills and Training

Developing A Training Plan
   

Resources:

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

  
Physical and Mental Training Considerations
Learning & Training Evaluation Theory
Exercises to Develop Coordination
Training Approaches
Training Strategies
Daily Training Tasks
Principle Of Variation
Training Transfer
Off-Season Conditioning
Peak Performance Training
Endurance Training
Building Endurance
PDF  Weight training Exercises
PDF  Strength Training Exercises
PDF  Power Skating Classes
PDF  Core Body Training
PDF  Endurance Training Plan

  
   
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