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Objectives of Psychomotor Goals

What is the difference between Goals and Objectives?      
       Goals are broad, generalized statements that discuss what is to be learned. Goals serve as a target to be achieved, or or measured against.

       Objectives are observable in behaviors that can be measured.
  • Objectives form the foundation that is used to construct lesson plans and devise assessments to determine if the overall goals of a course or lesson plan has been achieved.
  • Objectives serve as the tools used to reach the stated goals of a course or lesson plan.
       As an instruction designer, training, teacher, or coach, it is your responsibility to outline your intention of the information your will present and how you have determined:
  • to present the information you want the students to learn
  • how you will know that they actually learned the material.
        Educators use the terms Learning Objectives, Behavioral Objectives or Instructional Objectives in a universal manner. The purpose of any objective is to ensure that learning is clearly focused  and stated so that not misunderstanding occur between students and teacher. Objectives also require an objective method to measure the learning progress. Different teachers may have different styles, but the important thing is that they achieve the targeted goals.

For a more comprehensive explanation, refer to 
USER EDUCATION Goals and Objectives

        Psychomotor objectives focus on physical and kinesthetic skills (including keyboarding, using technical instruments and other skills).

       This domain is characterized by progressive levels of behaviors from observation to mastery of a physical skill.

Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains  June 5, 1999 ... Harrow, A. (1972) A Taxonomy of Psychomotor Domain: A Guide for Developing Behavioral Objectives.

Behavioral Objectives - Psychomotor Domain  Leslie Wilson's Curriculum Pages  These plans have been generously donated by students from my sections of ED381 and are meant to be used as planning prototypes for my undergraduate and graduate students, or by other interested browsers. If you use ideas presented in the plans, please give appropriate credit to the original writer. Each plan falls into one of the eight categories:

Combination Model - Plans using more than one of the above.

Graffiti Model - Graffiti is a cooperative learning structure in which students are asked to give written responses to questions posed by the teacher. The graffiti model is an excellent way to check for understanding, to evaluate instruction, or to do an informal pre-assessment. See Details

Holistic Learning Model - These plans reflect varied modalities and learning domains -- cognitive [thinking], affective [feeling], and psychomotor or physical [digital, haptic, tactile, kinesthetic].

Hunter Model - A highly structured format for plans devised using the classic, repetitive lesson model developed by the late Madeline Hunter.

Jigsaw Model - Originally, the jigsaw concept was developed in the 1960's to facilitate racial integration as students were required to work collaboratively on projects.  As an educational model it falls into the Social Family of methods. There are several variations of this model - more samples will be forthcoming. Link - to the 'Official" Jigsaw Site. 

Learning Styles Model - These plans are devised and written reflecting concepts developed by Kathleen Butler. Butler's work is based on learning style categorizations developed by Anthony Gregorc - concrete sequential, abstract sequential, concrete random, and abstract random personality and learning styles.

Multiple Intelligences - MI plans utilize, or are based on, those intelligences described in the work of Howard Gardner.

Problem Solving Model - These plans reflect general rules for developing skills used in solving problems. In this process the teacher develops a problem; carefully accesses skills needed to solve the problem; and creates conditions and/or parameters that act as guidelines for products or solutions. These same conditions and parameters also serve as evaluation and assessment criteria.

Source - University of Washington Special Education

Psychomotor Domain Taxonomy - source    Penn State Learning Design Community Hub

Psychomotor Domain Chart

Psychomotor Domain taxonomy

 
Level
  
Definition
Example

Observing

Active mental attending of a physical event.
The learner observes a more experienced person in his/her performance of the skill. Asked to observe sequences and relationships and to pay particular attention to the finished product. Direct observation may be supplemented by reading or watching a video. Thus, the learner may read about the topic and then watch a performance.

Imitating

Attempted copying of a physical behavior.
The learner begins to acquire the rudiments of the skill. The learner follows directions and sequences under close supervision. The total act is not important, nor is timing or coordination emphasized. The learner is conscious of deliberate effort to imitate the model.

Practicing

Trying a specific physical activity over and over.
The entire sequence is performed repeatedly. All aspects of the act are performed in sequence. Conscious effort fades as the performance becomes more or less habitual. Timing and coordination are emphasized. Here, the person has acquired the skill but is not an expert.

Adapting


Fine tuning. Making minor adjustments in the physical activity in order to perfect it.
Perfection of the skill. Minor adjustments are made that influence the total performance. Coaching often is very valuable here. This is how a good player becomes a better player.

Assessing Psychomotor Objectives   This document illustrates how a well-written objective assists one in developing valid assessment instruments. Psychomotor objectives are illustrated.

Recommended Reading:

Introduction - Modifying Skills and Habits
  
      
References:

Sports Information

Sports Training

Principles of Sports Training:

Developing Course Materials:

Developing Training Plans
   

Resources:

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

   
  
Principles of Sports Training:
Principles of Training Athletes
Developing Skills for Figure Skating
Acquiring Sports Skills
Amount of Time to Acquire Sports Skills
Biomechanics of Sports
Balanced Principles For Training
Sports Skills & Mechancial Techniques
Physical Fitness & Preparedness
Individual Differences
The Overload Principle in Training
Recovering From Training
Principle of Reversibility
Principle of Specificity
Transference of Knowledge & Skills
Training Variation
Psychomotor Domain
Objectives of Psychomotor Goals

All materials are copy protected. 

The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.


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