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Modeling Annual Athlete Training Plans
Researchers have been developing models of how to train athletes.
The goal of an annual plan is to direct and guide an athlete's training throughout a year of training. The basis of such a plan is constructed on the concept of periodization and training principles specific to individual sports. The training objective is for an athlete to reach a high level of performance (peak performance) by adhering to a methodical training schedule designed to develop skills, biomotor abilities, mental quickness/adgility, emotional stability, and psychological traits associated with dealing with the stressful environment of competing.
There are some simple key
essentials that have been used by elite
coaches for decades and studies have codified these observations in a
mathematical modeling of the training process.
There are 3 basic scenarios that can arise from decisions concerning increasing a training load:
Coaches must take into consideration there is a finite limit to the training load that an athlete can absorb at any single point in their training season. What a athlete can absorb over a long training period is significantly less than what the athlete can endure over a short term period. Long term monitoring ot their training workload provides the best assessment of what a optimal training load.
This optimal load will also change over the years as the athlete's base improves. The best approach is to stick to an existing given training load over 6-8 weeks until there is evidence to increase the work load.
The only way to reduce the risk of an injury that would cancel the fitness accrued is to plan very moderate volume jumps from month to month until you have a proven baseline ramp rate that you have sustained over the course of a season.
The longer the competitive season, the greater the risk of over training. If performance begins to decline as the season progresses, it is time to take a short break. The optimal length of this break depends on the skill base of the athlete and the length of the period of over training. A good general rule to take at least the same amount of time off as the over training.
Determine the Start of the
A means of dealing with the
planning can start by creating a master sheet that outlines the weekly
phases, with more detailed weekly plans identifying the specific
activities, and finally the daily schedule. The computer makes the
process easier, but still depends on how detailed oriented you are in
organizing the training concepts to the ultimate detail oriented daily
schedule. This will allow a cost and time analysis to be be constructed
with daily, weekly, and monthly budgeting to determine the annual
Beginner athletes need to understand the need to approach training in various stages of physical and mental preparation. For example:
Start by forming a weekly
The modern practice of periodized
refined by Eastern block nations during the Cold War (1950-1970).
Scientists involved in training athletes have not offered research
studies for periodization; However, there is antidotal evidence that
supports that the concept works.
"Periodization of training" means
into periods". Each training period or phase is dominated by one
training goal such as increase - speed, strength, and flexibility;
enhance endurance; reduce effects of fatigue;
achieve maximum performance.
The phases are not totally
devoted to one training mode, but the percentages of the emphasis
placed on the training goals change from the beginning to the end of
each competitive season.
of Stages of Life and Sport
Coaches must take
into consideration these
transitions when planning
the annual and long term training programs for their athletes.
Source - Science Direct
Phases of an Annual Training Plan:
The following generic, periodized annual training plan for multiple competitions is divided into phases with Macro and Micro cycles:
The ideal training plan should feature:
PDF ISSP Position Stand: Career Development and Transitions As summarized by Wylleman, Theeboom, and Lavallee (2004), research into the ..... In the developmental model of transitions faced by athletes.
PDF athletic Athletic development. Perfection. Development. Initiation. Discontinuation. 10. 15. 20. 25 ...Wylleman & Lavallee (2004) ... Developmental & holistic model.
Peaking for Competitions To facilitate this, the coach may model many training lessons to create .... Also, in an annual training plan (monocycle), most elite-class athletes require 32 to 36
PDF Long Term Athlete Development - Swimming Canada The Long Term Athlete Development Swimming strategy (LTADS) objectives include .... models from the former East Bloc countries, with all the positive and negative .... Our sport has seen many examples of athletes undertaking adult oriented training.
Annual Training Program An annual training program is necessary to maximize performance.
It is based on the concept of periodization, which divides the annual plan into training phases, and the principles of training. An annual training program is necessary to maximize performance. In principle, this means that athletes must train continually for 11 months, then reduce the amount of work during the last month. This work should vary from regular training to facilitate physiological, psychological, and CNS rest and regeneration before beginning another year of training.
The purpose of a Training Plan - Pro Water Polo The purpose of a Training Plan is to identify the work to be carried out to achieve ... when planning the annual and long term training programs for their athletes.
Intervals, Thresholds, and Long Slow Distance:
Studies involving intensification of training in already well trained athletes have ... use of high intensity interval training throughout the annual training cycle is the ..... should be integrated into the training program for optimal performance gains.
Physical and Mental Training Considerations
Developing A Training Plan
Developing A Plan for Success
The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
All materials are copy protected.
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.