Psychology -
Cognitive and Behaviorist Studies

Hosted by
San Diego Figure Skating Communications

Mental & Physical
Inputs & Responses

Responsibility of Instructional Designer
      It is the responsibility of instructional designer to develop a flow chart that illustrates every step that is required to accomplish the desired final goal.

Example of an Instructional Design Flowchart

Source - Finntrack

      Field testing the flow chart provides an opportunity to see if a reasonable number of people will be attracted to perform the first behavior of a chain and continue by taking the next step in the list.

      It is natural that some individuals will not show any interest in taking the second step. After every session, there should be a critical analysis with revisions to the chart. This process is continued for every step until the process successfully achieves the desired behavioral changes and meets an acceptable number who complete the training process.

The following model lists the basic steps and phases of instructional design:

  1. Analyzing the need for instruction (needs analysis), curriculum requirements, and the limitations and resources available for instruction. ANALYZE PHASE
  2. Analyzing the instructional goals, learners' needs, and their prior knowledge (entry level skills). DESIGN PHASE
  3. Constructing assessments (as you consider goals, learners' needs, and prior knowledge). DESIGN PHASE
  4. Determine instructional strategies and select instructional media that best facilitates student understanding of new knowledge and supports the instructional strategies. DEVELOPMENT PHASE
  5. Implementing the design: teaching/learning experience and student understanding (assessments). IMPLEMENT PHASE
  6. Examining the actual lesson or course you designed: evaluate the connection between goals and understanding, effectiveness of instructional strategies and media. Revise for the next course or lesson. Revise for the next time you teach the class.
Source - Steps and phases of instructional design

Buying into the Concept of Training is Essential
     Unless people buy into the concept (purpose) of the training, they will most likely feel forced to attend the sessions. As a course designer/trainer is important to approach the planning and execution of workshops and seminars with a positive attitude. The person who is developing the training must understand the following areas in order to effectively market the value of attending:
  • What is the training designed to accomplish?
  • How does it benefit the learner?
  • What practical applications are positive?
  • What can be improved to change the "status quo?"
  • How is it possible to avoid stressful changes?
Recognizing Stress
     Recognizing stress is the first step to eliminating or lessening its impact. The consistence occurrence of stressful situation tends to desensitize us to the causes of stress as a result of being constantly in a stressed state becomes the "new" normal. Attempt to write down what being fully relaxed and alert feels like.

     A balanced emotional state varies according to age, if we are male or female, and our role (wife/mother, husband/father) as a provider. It is easier to say that we should always maintain a:
  • Calm state of energy - is more than just feeling relaxed,
  • Alertness - is an equally important aspect of finding the balance needed to withstand stress,
  • Focus - being alert
     There are physical changes in our body that are caused by stress related tenseness. Breathing becomes more rapid, muscles become tense, and blood pressure increases. Sometimes acute headaches occur.  Individuals tend to respond to stress in three different ways such as becoming:
  • Angry, agitated, keyed up,
  • Spaced out or withdrawn,
  • Frozen or paralyzed - overexcited and under excited.
Good Health, Injuries, and Illnesses
     Everyone hopes that they and their children will have good health and not experience any life threatening illnesses. There is a wild card of some sports and activities involve more physical risks. Also some personalities may not be able to handle the stress levels of competing, especially sports that involve multiple events cumulating in a season ending playoff.

     Even in academic pursuits, there is considerable stress associated with getting into a prestigious university, pressure to join a fraternity or sorority, get into graduate, law, or medical school, and/or to be offered a well paying job upon graduation. Today the stress begins in some families attempting to enroll their unborn child into a prestigious pre-school along with announcements and elaborate celebrations of graduation from these pre-schools.

Recommended Reading:
  • Instructional Design
    March 10, 2003 ... As learning architects, teachers design instruction. ... the elements of the instructional design framework represented in a flowchart.
  • PDF Instructional Systems Design Phases of Instructional Design. Development of initial Content ideas. Task Analysis. Concept Analysis. Preliminary Program Description.
  • What is Dysautonomia? It is the sum total of all the mental and physical inputs that we receive throughout life. Autonomia refers to the autonomic nervous system. We have two nervous systems. The one whose function we all understand is called the voluntary system. This enables us to carry out willed function that we can stop or start as we desire or need. The autonomic system is not under voluntary or willed control. It is controlled automatically by the lower part of the brain known as the limbic system and brainstem. The brainstem is that part of the brain that connects to the spinal cord and it contains control centers that deal with automatic breathing among other important responsibilities.
  • Visual Expert Human Factors: Reaction Time   Mental processing time is itself a composite of four sub stages: ... In general, novel input slows response, as does low signal probability, uncertainty (signal location, time ... Instead, the stopping is a function of physical forces, gravity and friction.
  • The Importance of Yoga for Sports Persons   Feb. 5, 2011 Yoga is a holistic system - teaching skills which many sports persons seek, such as control over the mind, control over the body, good breathing, etc.
  • Autonomic Nervous System - NDRF   The autonomic nervous system conveys sensory impulses from the blood vessels , the heart and all of the organs in the chest, abdomen and pelvis, etc.
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  All kids have worries and doubts. But some have obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) in which their worries compel them to behave in certain ways.

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
Modifying Skills & Poor Techniques

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

Athlete Concerns     Collection of Related Ideas    Skating Articles    Related Topics      

Ice Skating Rink Index    Topic Index    Site Index   Home Page