Communicating Concepts

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Instructional Validation

        Validation is a observation instrument designed to provide informative feedback of student acquistion of information.

        The following specific teaching strategies have been found to be useful. Each strategy has been
tested in classroom situations and been validated to demonstrate effectiveness. The strategies can be used across a range of subject matters:

Response cards: Cards, signs or items that are used by students to indicate their response to a
question or problem presented by the teacher. Response cards allow a teacher to provide practice for allstudents simultaneously instead of just calling on one or two students. Evaluation indicated that withresponse cards well over ten times as many student responses were obtained, with higher test scores,than without response cards.

Guided Notes: Teacher prepared handouts that guide a student through a lecture with standard cues and specific spaces in which to write key facts, concepts, and relationships. Data support higher test scores when guided notes are used, and that student notes are more accurate after using guided notes.

Error Correction: The use of multiple opportunities for students to practice (respond) to materials during the acquisition phase of learning, while providing immediate feedback and error correction thatensures that students don't practice errors. Error correction has been shown to improve student learningin a range of studies.

Time Trials : Following the acquisition phase of learning, used to help students build fluency, i.e., the ability to respond quickly and accurately within a given time limit and to retain learning over time. Studies have shown that time trials improve student accuracy and that students like time trials.

Source - PDF  Ohio State University

Instructional Techniques Set Positive Precedents in Training Instruction
       It is important to keep learners physically and mentally active during training programs. Use every  opportunity to get people involved.

       Precedents are prior instances that establish what the instructer/presentor expects and sets the tone for how future class sessions will be conducted. These are not formal rules that people must follow, but department heads may strongly recommend a list of protocols. The following are a list of precedents you can use as a teacher in your training sessions that can produce a better learning climate:

Start on time: If there’s one thing I’ve noticed that incites people to show up on time is the idea of walking in after the session has started.

Take breaks as scheduled: The temptation to finish a lesson before the break is strong. But if it’s time for a break, just take it. It doesn’t matter where it occurs within any particular lesson. This will help people have confidence in your ability to manage time.

Accept all learner input: How you react to people’s comments affects their willingness to continue commenting, and therefore, participating.

Handle problems promptly: If you show a willingness to resolve problems as they appear, learners will have more confidence in you and be more willing to follow your directions.

Minimize the role of slides: Most people hate “Death by PowerPoint” training. If you create opportunities to share experiences, compare opinions, and try out new ideas, you set a tone that makes people excited to be there.

Source - Langevin Learning Services

A Task or Skill Aid
       Some people call this tool a "Job Aids", In reality this is a description that includes each and every step from start to completition of an process that has not become a part of the individual's long term memory.

       When creating any aid, remember to focus on who will use it. Use terms that the user will easily comprehend. Use photos or illustrations in combination with a written description to make sure each step is crystal clear so no misunderstandings can occur.

Tips on creating user-friendly job aids.
  1. Use simple language.

    This technique involves using clear wording so the reader doesn’t struggle with meaning. Instead of using lots of technical terms or industry jargon, keep your descriptions short and to the point.

  2. Employ action steps.

    Limit each step to only one action. That will keep the process very clear in the mind of the reader. Consider numbering your steps for even greater clarity. The only time multiple actions should be taken in the same step is when two things need to happen at the same time.

  3. Include pictures.

    Having a verbal description and a matching picture will help to make each action even clearer. The picture can be an actual picture or a realistic illustration. While black and white is more cost effective, consider using color to really clarify objects and actions. Speaking of actions, it’s also a good idea to use arrows, highlights, or close-ups to “illustrate” your point.

  4. Provide contact information.

    While the intent of a job aid is to provide stand-alone assistance in performing a task, there will be times when further assistance is required. To allow for such assistance, include a contact phone number or email address. I’ve even seen some job aids that list a web site where the user can watch videos that show how to perform the specific task they are working on.

  5. Limit it to one sheet.

    Each job aid should fit on one sheet of paper. It may be front and back, but it’s still one sheet. If there are so many details that the job aid would be multiple sheets, consider multiple job aids. The one exception to this is in the case of a detailed checklist. I know of many industries where some of the basic checklists are three or four pages. In these cases, segmenting specific parts of the checklist to specific pages is a solid technique.

Validating Web-Based Instructional Design

Designing effective Web Base Training (WBT) programs have become a
crucial part of an educational strategic plan to provide learners with the know-
ledge and skills the learners need to acquire quickly and effectively.

        In order to help accomplish key objectives, validating web programs becomes a vital component in instructional design of each project. There is just too much at stake to take a chance without conducting some type of validation and risk that the program will be ineffective .
Recommended Reading:


PDF The Validation of an Instructional Design This research study aims to validate a model of instructional design and development.

PDF   The Development and Validation of a Survey Instrument.  for the Evaluation of Instructional Aids. Elaine Strachota. Steven W. Schmidt. Simone C. O. Conceição.

PDF Development and validation of a systematically ... validated instructional materials to teach Internet search skills, (5) paucity of faculty members proficient in Internet searching, and (6) unreasonable expectations


The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Learning Considerations
PDF  Attentional Focus
PDF  Spatial Disorientation
PDF  Effects of Mood on Performance
PDF  Confidence through Motivation
PDF  Transfer of Learning Issues
Instructional Validation

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

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