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Instructional Design Components

What is Instructional Design?
      Those in this area of research define Instructional Design as “a systematic process that is employed to develop education and training programs in a consistent and reliable fashion”.

      Instructional Design models or theories provide the frameworks for developing modules or lessons that:
  1. Increase and/or enhance the possibility of learning 
  2. Encourage the engagement of learners so that they learn faster and gain deeper levels of understanding.

      Instructional Design (ID) models differ from Instructional System Design (ISD) models in that ISD models have a broad scope and typically divide the instruction design process into five phases. The ADDIE approach consists of:

  1. Analysis
  2. Design
  3. Development
  4. Implementation or Delivery
  5. Evaluation
      There are seven widely accepted theories for designing learning environments that are commonly known as Learning Design or Instructional Design:

       Also included:

Source - NWLink

Four Component Instructional Design (4C/ID)
Last updated Sept. 2008
by Prof. Jeroen Van Merrienboer and Prof. Paul A. Kirschner, Open University of the Netherlands

       The Four-Component Instructional Design model (4C/ID-model) is based on the assumption that the blueprints for complex learning can always be described by four basic components - learning tasks, supportive information, procedural information, and part-task practice:

Basic Components
Ten Steps to Complex Learning

Learning Tasks
Step 1 - The design of supportive information

Step 2 - Sequencing of task classes are organized so learning task so occur in easy-to-difficult categories. They ensure that students work on tasks that begin simply and smoothly increase in difficulty.

Step 3 - where performance objectives are set, specifies the standards for acceptable performance. They are needed to assess student performance and to provide them with useful feedback.

Supportive Information
Step 4 - the design of procedural information

Steps 5 and 6 - may be necessary for in-depth analysis of the supportive information that would be helpful for learning to carry out the non-routine aspects of learning tasks. Analyzing cognitive strategies yields approaches that guide the learner’s problem solving processes in the task domain, and analyzing mental models yields those conceptual, causal, and structural models that help learners learn to reason in this domain.

Procedural Information
Step 7 - the design of part-task practice

Steps 8 and 9 - may be necessary for in-depth analysis of the procedural information needed for performing routine aspects of learning tasks. Analyzing cognitive rules yields condition- action pairs (IF condition THEN action) that allow learners to perform a procedure, and analyzing prerequisite knowledge yields facts, concepts, principles, and plans that learners should know in order to correctly apply their cognitive rules.
Part-task Practice
Step 10 - The other six steps are auxiliary and are only performed when necessary.

      The time  to design and develop substantial learning and/or training programs can take weeks and months to several years. The complexity of developing materials that represent a substantial part of a curriculum for the development of competencies or complex skills generally require being developed in stages that can be implemented and evaluated. This should be considered as an opportunity to identify problems that require redesign prior to moving to a subsequent stage of the project.

Note:  Real life design projects are never a straightforward progression from Step 1 to Step 10. It may help to design a few learning tasks as part of a process to achieve a workable prototype. After vetting the material in front of a focus group, it may be necessary to completely revise (start over) or minor tweaking of the materials. There is no time savings to move forward with the comprehensive project design before eliminating major problems.

      Some particular steps may be superfluous for the project. This results in ‘zigzagging’ between the ten steps. The challenge is to keep a good overview of all the anticipated uses of final training designed project. Computer based tools are very helpful in carrying out any large design project. Someone in the designing working group need to have the skills to use computer software to facilitate the systematic development of an educational blueprint.  The team leader must keep designers focused on the goal(s) of the whole project as they zigzag between different design steps.

Source -

Recommended Reading:

Instructional Design:

Training Principles:

Principles of Sports Training:

Developing Course Materials:

Developing Training Plans

What are the goals and objectives?

What will is the subject content (message)?

What teaching methods and technology (media) will be used?

How will learners be assessed?

How will a course or lesson's instructional design be evaluated and improved?


164.01 Ice Hockey I Sample Syllabus  Introductory skills and techniques of ice hockey Prerequisites: 162.02 or equiv. Open only to beginners.

164.03 Ice Hockey II Sample Syllabus  Intermediate to advanced play. Perquisite: 164.01 or previous playing experience.

Instructional Design Models and Components   Several models of instructional design exist. One of the most famous is Dick and Carey's Model for designing instruction.

Instructional Design Models - University of Windsor   Models for instructional design provide procedural frameworks for the ... how combinations of instructional strategy components should be integrated to produce a course of instruction.

There are five eLearning Components that are essential for all successful online courses. Understanding these components will help you design and develop a course that meets computer based training objectives.

Dick and Carey's Instructional Design Model

Kemp's Model Instructional Design Model

Ice Skating I Sample Syllabus   Fundamentals of balance, movement, and safety on the ice; forward, backward, and stopping. Guidance in choice, use and care of equipment. 2 lab hours arr. Open only to beginners. This course is graded.

Ice Skating II Sample Syllabus   Elementary skating with emphasis on correct technique for basic skills. 2 lab hours arr. Perquisites: 162.01 or ability to skate forward, backward, and stop with no balance problems.

Ice Skating III Sample Syllabus  Power skating: designed for persons having had more than 30 hours on ice and who can execute the basic strokes (including back crossovers) with correct techniques. 4 lab hours. Prerequisite: 162.02 or 162.04 or equiv. skill level.

Sample Syllabus 163.01    Lectures: survey of figure skating includes history, types of competition, judging, recreational, and show skating. Lab: introduction to free skating, compulsory figures, and dance skating.  1 cl, 3 lab hours. Prerequisite: 162.03 or permission of instructor.

Sample Syllabus 163.02  Intermediate and advanced freestyle; intermediate: all single jumps, basic spins, and advanced footwork; advanced: jump combinations, spin combinations, and double jumps.
3 lab hours arr. Perquisite: 163.01 or permission of instructor.

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Instructional Design
PDF  Writing Objectives Instructional Design Models
Instructional Design Components
Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs)
Evaluating Learning Outcomes

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The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

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