The Learning Process
San Diego Figure Skating Communications
a non-profit educational organization
Individual Differences in Athletes
The physical conditioning, form/movement, and outcomes in sports are determined by goals that are continually changing as physical and mental barriers are revised. Researchers, coaches, and trainers are applying a new paradigm for incorporating more empowerment and decision-making responsibilities into learning motor skills with Ecological Task Analysis and Movement (ETS) model. The ETA model offers strategies for replacing authoritarian practices by substituting student choice designed to empower each individual to accept more responsibility in achieving their goal of becoming an elite athlete.
The debate about nature verses nurture is on going without a decisive conclusion. Many factors contribute to an athlete's performance. Psychology and motor behavioral scientists work to modify individual differences of athletes and convert negatives into stable, enduring qualities that contribute to successful athletic performances.Abilities verses Skills
A Motor Skill is the capability of performing a task with maximum certainty, minimum energy, or minimum time. Such proficiency is developed through long hours of practice. An athlete's general motor skill potential may be inherited along with height, body types, and other physical traits. However, no objective research has been published that supports an individual's parents sports abilities are a predictor of their children's sports performance.
Many specific motor skill patterns have been identified, grouped, and Categorized to simplify the process of comparing and contrasting ideas/options for learners. A Developmental Task Analysis represents several variables that influence performance of a motor skill, and a way to state the degree of difficulty within each variable. Examples include:
All athletes should have an Individual Education Program (IEP) plan that outlines academic goals and the method to obtain these goals. Athletes should also have an Individual Education Program (IEP) plan that outlines their sports goals. A comparison of these two assessments allows for potential conflicts to be identified and provides an opportunity to resolve the problems at an early stage of childhood development.
The influence of Coaching on Sport Performance
It is very important to have an objective observer who controls/manages a training program. Coaches and trainers can be supportive, but they lose their objectiveness if they become involved in the personal lives of their athletes. Athletes should be referred to professional resources for physiological and addiction problems. Under most circumstances this role should not be filled by a coach or trainer unless they have the necessary credentials. Unfortunately some parents attempt to fill this role which almost always leads to considerable physical and emotional stress and conflict for the athlete. A qualified and licensed professional should be consulted because they have the training and are an objective third party who can better resolve emotionally charges issues.
A coach with professional credentials should be qualified to perform the following tasks:
Sport Psychology, Motivation and Performance Activities, such as wrestling and gymnastics, Sport psychology has also examined the effects of sport participation on personality ... Individual sport... And most of the gender differences that are apparent in sport behavior are based on ...
Individual differences, perceived control Individual differences, perceived control and competitive trait anxiety. Effects of sport context and birth order on state anxiety.
Individual differences, perceived control and competitive Although the importance of individual differences within Jones' model, ... main effects) between individual differences and different stressors.
The Effect of Individual Differences as Moderator Variables on The published research in the area of individual differences as ... It has long been accepted that anxiety impairs sport performance.
Exercise and Fatigue Is Neuroendocrinology Important Due to these effects of caffeine on exercise performance, It is intriguing to consider, however, that individual differences in exercise endurance.
CoachesInfo.com - information and education for coaches Collins, D. (1999) In the Event: how does anxiety affect performance?
Relationships Between Life Stress And Performance In Sports: Individual differences in such factors as self-confidence and self-efficacy expectations have also been shown to influence performance in sports.
Individual Differences Articles concerned with individual differences among athletes.
The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
All materials are copy protected.
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.