The Learning Process
San Diego Figure Skating Communications
a non-profit educational organization
Individual Differences -
in learning and performance
Athletes are formed by genetic environment differences
The debate about nature verses nurture is on going without a decisive conclusion. Many factors contribute to mental and physical performance. Psychology and motor behavioral scientists work to modify individual differences and convert negatives into stable, enduring qualities that contribute to successful learning and performing.Abilities verses Skills
A Motor Skill is the capability of performing with maximum certainty, minimum energy, or minimum time. It is developed through practice. Each individual's potential Motor skill abilities may be inherited along with height, body types, and other physical traits. There is no objective research that an individual's parents academic, musical, artistic, or sports abilities are a predictor of their children's abilities.
Many specific skill abilities have been identified and grouped. Examples include: multi-limb coordination, control precision, aiming, explosive strength, dynamic flexibility, speed of limb movement, movement rate, and force control.
Teacher can analyze a specific skill requirements by identifying the motor abilities necessary for musical, dancing, artistic, or acting performance. Using a skill task analysis can help in developing a training plan to enhance sport skills, aid in problem solving, and predict future performance.
The influence of Teaching on Academic Performance
A recent educational study tracked 2.5 million students over a 25 year period. The data shows a correlation between high test scores, from as early as kindergarten, with success rates in early adulthood.
Tests that measures a students’ scholastic performance over the academic year, seems to be the best indicator for guiding a student from kindergarten through to graduation from college has been documented in two studies done conducted by two leading universities.
Every learner has the right to receive a quality education that can assist them in achieving their full potential. Decisions concerning what is the most appropriate environment and educational program should be based on test data.
There are two types of testing:
Multi-faceted approaches to assessment are better suited to quantify how their deficits and strengths reflect acquire knowledge. Curriculum based assessments produce criterion referenced scores that allow each individual's performance to be compared against a objective performance standard.
Evaluations should assess children in the following areas:
Sport Psychology, Motivation and Performance Activities, such as wrestling and gymnastics, Sport psychology has also examined the effects of sport participation on personality ... Individual sport... And most of the gender differences that are apparent in sport behavior are based on ...
Individual differences, perceived control Individual differences, perceived control and competitive trait anxiety. Effects of sport context and birth order on state anxiety.
Individual differences, perceived control and competitive Although the importance of individual differences within Jones' model, ... main effects) between individual differences and different stressors.
The Effect of Individual Differences as Moderator Variables on The published research in the area of individual differences as ... It has long been accepted that anxiety impairs sport performance.
Exercise and Fatigue Is Neuroendocrinology Important Due to these effects of caffeine on exercise performance, It is intriguing to consider, however, that individual differences in exercise endurance.
CoachesInfo.com - information and education for coaches Collins, D. (1999) In the Event: how does anxiety affect performance?
Relationships Between Life Stress And Performance In Sports: Individual differences in such factors as self-confidence and self-efficacy expectations have also been shown to influence performance in sports.
The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
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The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.