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Increasing Endurance Levels
Definition of the term endurance
Endurance training is the act of exercising to increase stamina and endurance. The term "endurance training" generally refers to training an aerobic system as opposed an anaerobic system.
The term endurance is a widely used. In fact it is often used interchangeably with terms like "aerobic", "anaerobic", "strength", "speed", and stamina.
Endurance is an important for many sports and not just distance events like running, swimming and cycling. The type and amount of endurance training changes to meet to the specific requirements of each sport, Traditional strength and power based team and individual sports also require a solid aerobic base.
Factors that limit endurance
There are multiple factors that limit endurance in sports which are based predominantly with the causes of fatigue. Fatigue is a complex issue and one that consists of both physical and psychological factors. Exercise scientists have identified several major causes of exhaustion and research has shown that they can all be manipulated to some extent with proper training:
VO2 max or maximal oxygen uptake. Elite endurance athletes typically have a high VO2 max and seems to be genetically predetermined. Untrained athletes can improved their VO2 max levels by as much as 20%. A goal of any endurance training program is to help the athlete reach thier genetic upper limit for aerobic power.
It is the lacate threshold which determines how what percentage of the 'aerobic' upper limit can actually be used. The exact relationship between blood lactate accumulation and increasing exercise intensity is subject to debate. However, there is agreement on that training can have a favorable effect on lactate accumulation and when it occurs, which is associated with improving an athlete's endurance performance.
Muscle Fiber Characteristics
Within skeletal muscle there are other adaptations elicited by aerobic endurance training.
Other Adaptations to Endurance Training
Source - Sports Fitness Advisor
Typical Endurance Training Mistakes:
#1: Isolated exercises do not produce any significant results. One-muscle-at-a-time moves simply don't stimulate enough muscle fibers to build lean muscle or expend enough energy to maximize your calorie burn. Your exercise program should involve multiple exercises that stimulate as many muscles and expend as much energy as possible and at the same time.Sports injury rehab - how to design sports injury rehab regimes based on sound training principles
#2: Working out with high-end, expensive exercise machines may make the gym look "professional", but the machines alter the way your body naturally moves and restrict your range of motion. This severely limits activating all of your muscles fibers and can cause excessive strain on your joints, leading to nagging injuries down the road. It's critical to incorporate exercises that allow your body to move in a natural, full range of motion so you can speed up your metabolism and tone your entire physique.
#3: Doing long cardio exercise sessions requires a lot of effort with unnecessary stress on your joints to get minimal results.
#4: Doing traditional crunches and sit-ups to enhance abs or any exercises that target your abs won't make your abs get any more defined and they definitely don't burn any fat. The key to getting sculpted abs is to burn off that stubborn belly fat while stimulating your six abdominal muscles at the same time.
#5: Repeating the same workout routines over and over is a surefire way to STOP getting results. If you want to continue making progress and keep seeing changes in your body, you've got to start switching things up. The body has the ability to adapt quickly and when it does, you hit the a plateau and stop making progress.
#6: Doing long workouts do NOT equate to better or faster results. If uour present exercise program at the gym isn't producing the changes you desire, don't expect a different result doing more of the same thing! Your body will respond better to quality rather than quantity.
by Raphael Brandon
Raphael Brandon is a Strength & Conditioning and Running Coach, Consultant
and Presenter, Science & Medicine Team Leader. He is located in London, United
Kingdom. School of Sport. University of Stirling. Stirling. FK9 4LA Scotland.
An elite sports trainer should be able to design workouts that cover all relevant fitness areas - strength, flexibility, agility, aerobic and anaerobic endurance and speed. These workouts must be both specific to the sport and suitable for the level of the athlete.
A trainer should be able to assess fitness levels, understand physiological and biomechanical test data, liaise with physiotherapists regarding injury prevention and rehabilitation and also be able to pass on sound nutritional instruction."
Source - Sports-Specific Fitness Program
The Benefits of Speed, Agility, and Endurance Training for Young Athletes
by Traci Darwin
Our youth are becoming increasingly involved in a more advanced level of competition with the hopes of obtaining their dreams of being the best at their chosen sport. It takes discipline to complete endurance and agility building exercises; thus you create a more disciplined athlete. Because speed, endurance, and agility are not sport specific, they have benefits in all athletic endeavors.
Teaching good nutritional habits can benefit the young athlete by preparing the body for physical exertion and aid in prevention and faster recovery from the least to most serious injuries. From injury prevention to elite athlete status, youth training can be beneficial to recreational athletes as well as professional athletes, both male and female.
developmental physiology can
supply answers to certain important questions regarding the training of
Different Types of Endurance Training
VO2max - Your
Threshold - Tapping Your Aerobic Potential
Determine Your Anaerobic Threshold
Training for Sport-Specific Endurance
Design a Fartlek Training Session for Your Sport
Training For Endurance
Heart Rate Training for
Heart Rate Reserve to Calculate Target Heart Rate
Lactate Tolerance Training
Lactate tolerance training will help you to recover more quickly from successive bursts of speed and power. It will increase your tolerance to lactic acid and allow you maintain a high work rate for longer.
10 commandments of endurance training The 10 commandments of endurance training. By Vic Brown; Published Dec. 28, 2010.
Endurance Training For Sport
Different Types of Endurance Training Interval training, fartlek training, tempo runs... there are several distinct forms of endurance training - here they are with some sample plans.
VO2max - Your Aerobic Potential Endurance training and VO2 max seem to inextricably linked. While maximal oxygen uptake is certainly not the be all and end all of endurance performance, understanding what it is and how it can be affected by training can help athletes better prepare themselves for competition.
Threshold - Tapping Your Aerobic Potential Perhaps more indicative of
success in endurance sports, an
trainable, is lactate threshold. Often a confusing subject for some
coaches and athletes, from a practical point of view, improving lactate
threshold is relatively straight
How to Determine Your Anaerobic Threshold There are several non-invasive tests used to determine the lactate and anaerobic threshold. What are they and which are the most reliable?
Once you have determined your lactate threshold how can you improve it?
While the experts debate even its existence, athletes can still benefit
from delaying the onset of lactate accumulation.
Design a Fartlek Training Session for Your Sport Fartlek may
sound strange but it's a highly effective form of training.
And with so many variations you need to make sure it's specific to your
Training for Sport-Specific Endurance Interval training is more
demanding than continuous type
brings about different adaptations. It may also be more suitable for
multi-sprint sports such as hockey, rugby and soccer. However, even
ultra-endurance athletes are finding that a reduction in volume in
favor of some shorter, more intense interval training can improve
Training For Endurance Here are two tried and trusted
circuits for long distance athletes.
PDF Specificity of endurance, sprint and strength Specificity of endurance, sprint and strength training on physical performance capacity in young athletes. K. HAKKINEN, Ph.Dt, A. MERO, Ph.D., H. KAUHANEN
Strength Training Recommendations for Young Athletes Strength Training Recommendations for Young Athletes. Because ... The effects of different resistance training protocols on muscular strength and endurance.
PDF Endurance Training and Elite Young Athletes - Karger Armstrong N, McManus AM (eds): The Elite Young Athlete. Med Sport Sci. Basel, Karger, 2011, vol 56, pp 59–83. Endurance Training and Elite Young Athletes
PDF Trainability of young athletes and overtraining - indicates that over- training is occurring in young athletes (30% prevalence), high- ...... pate in a 13-week endurance training programme (3 X 1 hour per week
The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
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The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.