Information & Resources
San Diego Figure Skating Communications
How We Learn
Learning is step by step process. Acquiring information is a linear process starting with a strong basic foundation on which additional ideas are constructed in an orderly fashion.
To learn is to acquire
knowledge or skill
The handbook Learning Theory is designed as a basic guide to educational psychology that addresses how psychology is directly concerned with how people learn.
Since learning is an individual process, the instructor cannot do it for the student. The student can learn only from personal experiences; therefore, learning and knowledge cannot exist apart from a person. A person's knowledge is a result of experience, and no two people have had identical experiences.
Even when observing the same event, two people react differently; they learn different things from it, according to the manner in which the situation affects their individual needs. Previous experience conditions a person to respond to some things and to ignore others.
learning is by experience, but learning takes place in different forms
and in varying degrees of richness and depth. For instance, some
experiences involve the whole person while others may be based only on
hearing and memory. Instructors are faced with the problem of
providing learning experiences that are meaningful, varied, and
appropriate. As an example, students can learn to say a list of words
through repeated drill, or they can learn to recite certain principles
However, they can make the principles meaningful only if they understand them well enough to apply them correctly to real situations. If an experience challenges the students, requires involvement with feelings, thoughts, memory of past experiences, and physical activity, it is more effective than a learning experience in which all the students have to do is commit something to memory.Psychologists sometimes classify learning by types, such as verbal, conceptual, perceptual, motor, problem solving, and emotional. Other classifications refer to intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, and attitudinal changes, along with descriptive terms like surface or deep learning. However useful these divisions may be, they are somewhat artificial.
Learning is a process that
does not occur as a continuous and uniform exchange of information.
For students to learn, they need to react and respond; however this is not always an observable process that reflects the emotional, or intellectual status of the learner. h apply to how individual students learn. In addition, today's culturally diverse society, including international students, must be considered.
The key point is that all students are different, and training programs should be sensitive to the differences. Some students are fast learners and others have difficulties; and, as already mentioned, motivation, experience, and previous training affect learning style. Any number of adjectives may be used to describe learning styles. Some common examples include:
The desire for personal gain, either the acquisition of possessions or status, is a basic motivational factor for all human endeavor. An individual may be motivated to dig a ditch or to design a supersonic airplane solely by the desire for financial gain.
Students are like typical employees in wanting a tangible return for their efforts. For motivation to be effective, students must believe that their efforts will be suitably rewarded. These rewards must be constantly apparent to the student during instruction, whether they are to be financial, self-esteem, or public recognition.
often have objectives which are not obvious at first. Although these
lessons will pay dividends during later instruction, the student may
not appreciate this fact. It is important for the instructor to make
the student aware of those applications which are not immediately
apparent. Likewise, the devotion of too much time and effort to drill
and practice on operations which do not directly contribute to
competent performance should be avoided.
The desire for personal comfort and security is a form of motivation which instructors often forget. All students want secure, pleasant conditions and a safe environment. If they recognize that what they are learning may promote these objectives, their attention is easier to attract and hold. Insecure and unpleasant training situations inhibit learning.
Everyone wants to avoid pain and injury. Students normally are eager to learn operations or procedures which help prevent injury or loss of life. This is especially true when the student knows that the ability to make timely decisions, or to act correctly in an emergency, is based on sound principles.
The attractive features of the activity to be learned also can be a strong motivational factor. Students are anxious to learn skills which may be used to their advantage. If they understand that each task will be useful in preparing for future activities, they will be more willing to pursue it.
Another strong motivating force is group approval. Every person wants the approval of peers and superiors. Interest can be stimulated and maintained by building on this natural desire. Most students enjoy the feeling of belonging to a group and are interested in accomplishment which will give them prestige among their fellow students.
person seeks to establish a favorable self-image. In certain instances,
this self-image may be submerged in feelings of insecurity or
despondency. Fortunately, most people engaged in a task believe that
success is possible under the right combination of circumstances and
good fortune. This belief can be a powerful motivating force for
An instructor can effectively foster this motivation
introduction of perceptions which are solidly based on previously
learned factual information that is easily recognized by the student.
Each additional block of learning should help formulate insight which
contributes to the ultimate training goals.
This promotes student
confidence in the overall training program and, at the same time, helps
the student develop a favorable self-image. As this confirmation
progresses and confidence increases, advances will be more rapid and
motivation will be strengthened.
is more difficult to unlearn a mistake, and then
learn it correctly, than to learn correctly in the first place.
to make students aware of their progress is to repeat a demonstration
or example and to show them the standards their performance must
The four levels of communication includes INTRAPERSONAL; INTERPERSONAL; GROUP; PUBLIC.
CoachesInfo.com - information and education for coaches Coaches are responsible for maximizing individual athlete's performance by ... mode - that is, how athletes take in and process information or learning style. .... their verbal communication with written words, diagrams, visuals, and videotapes.
The-Coach-Athlete-Relationship - Communication Communication is the art of successfully sharing meaningful information with the athlete(s). The athlete may jump to a conclusion instead of working through the process of understanding the concepts being expressed.
Formative and Summative Assessment in the Classroom When a comprehensive assessment program at the classroom level balances student achievement information derived from both summative and formative assessment.
Classroom Assessment | Basic Concepts Formative vs. Summative Assessments. Classroom assessments can include a wide range of options -- from recording anecdotal notes while observing behaviors.
Formative vs Summative Assessment - Enhancing Education - ... The goal of summative assessment is to measure the level of success or proficiency that has been obtained at the end of an instructional unit,
Educational Psychology Interactive: The Information Processing ... The major proposition is that learners utilize different levels of elaboration as they process information. This is done on a continuum from perception through processing.
A Primer: Diagnostic, Formative, & Summative Assessment In particular, the distinctions between diagnostic, formative, and summative assessment methods will be discussed.
Mayer's SOI model Learning occurs when the new information is placed in long-term memory. Role of the learner: receive and process information;
Learning Disabilities Most students affected by them have more than one kind. ... The way our brains process information is extremely complex.
PDF Using Students' Learning Styles to Provide Learning Style Inventory (LSI) looks at how learners perceive and process information while the Myers-Briggs Type. Indicator uses dichotomous scales ...
REACHING THE SECOND TIER: LEARNING AND TEACHING STYLES IN ...
The number of students in the second category might in fact be enough to prevent ... How does the student prefer to process information:
Learning Styles - Michigan Community College Virtual Learning ... Auditory learners tend to learn more effectively through listening, while visual learners process information by seeing it in print or other visual modes.
Information Processing Information Processing. When we deal with information, we do so in steps. ... useful insights into how to help learners acquire and retain information.
The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
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The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.