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Grades Of Execution (GOE)

 Application of a Quality Standard
       In the 6.0 judging system the quality of performing technical elements (jumps, spins, step/spiral sequences), and optional items, like spread eagles, ina bauers, etc., are evaluated by the judging panel. In an effort to be more transparent, the ISU developed a new judging system in response to the wide spread criticism about the 2002 Winter Olympic Pairs event held in Park City, UT, a suburb of Salt Lake city,

       Until that incident, it was suspected that some figure skating competitions were fixed and that the figure skating judging system was not fair, but no changes in ice skating judging took place. What happened at the 2002 Olympics changed figure skating forever since shortly afterwards, a new judging system was implemented.

      In the ISU Judging System each element in a figure skating program has a base value. For example a double Toe loop has a base value of 1.3, and a double Lutz has a base value of 1.9.

       The grade of execution score (GOE) measures the quality of the element and is added to the base value.

       A judge determines their final GOE of an element by considering the positive aspects of the element and reduces their evaluation according to the guidelines of possible errors to arrive at their final GOE mark for the element.

       To establish the starting GOE Judges take into consideration the positive aspects for each element. It’s up to a Judge to decide on the number of attributes for any upgrade, but in general the recommendations are as follows:

  • +1 - Skater achieves 1 - 2 aspects
  • +2 - Skater achieves 3 - 4 aspects
  • +3 - Skater achieves 5 - 6 aspects

  • Unexpected, creative, or difficult entry
  • Clear recognizable steps/free skating movements immediately preceding element
  • Varied position in the air and/or delay in rotation
  • Great height and/or distance
  • Superior extension on landing and/or creative exit
  • Superior flow into and out of (and throughout jump combinations/sequences)

  • Good control throughout (entry, rotation, change of foot, conclusion/exit)
  • Good speed or acceleration during spin
  • Balanced rotations (on different feet and/or in different positions/variations)
  • Clearly more than required number of revolutions
  • Superior position(s) (including air position in flying spins)
  • Creativity and originality

Spiral Sequences
  • Good flow, energy, and execution
  • Good speed during sequence
  • Good body line
  • Highlights the character of the program
  • Superior flexibility
  • Creativity and originality

Step Sequences
  • Good energy and execution
  • Good speed or acceleration during sequence
  • Good timing according to the music
  • Highlights the character of the program
  • Superior control and commitment of whole body to accuracy of steps
  • Creativity and originality

      The ISU has established parameters for a "well-balanced program" free skating, pairs, and free dance program. For example, in a free skating program there are limitations on the number of jumping passes that can be done, how many times the same jump can be attempted, number of specific types of spin, etc.  Skaters will not receive credit for an element that exceeds the allowable content even if it was performed without an error.


ISU Figure Skating Judging


The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

IJS Competition Articles
Grades of Execution (GOE)
          GOE Guidelines
          Calculation of Base Values & GOE Scores
PDF  Single/Pair Elements Levels of Difficulty 
PDF  Guidelines marking Single/Pair GOEs
          Calculating Base Values & GOE Scores
PDF  Changes in the Scales of Values
          GOE Spin Elements
          GOE Step Spiral Elements
PDF  Program Component Marking Ranges
PDF  Explanation of Components
          Planned Program Content
PDF  Planned Program Content Form
          Considerations - Performance  Feedback
          Does Outcome Equal Performance
          Summary of IJS Judging System

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

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