The Learning Process
San Diego Figure Skating Communications
a non-profit educational organization
General Physical Training Principles
Training is a
process of repetitive exercising that is designed to increase the level
of the athlete's skills and body strength in increments. Training
involves learning new skills and modifying old skills with the goal of
ultimately improving and optimizing the physical performance.
A critical component necessary to improve athletic performance is to develop a comprehensive and well organized system of training. Whomever designs the training program must understand and support training phases that are structured and sports specific to enhance the athlete's energy requirements of the sport.
Technique is considered
to be critical in the sport of figure skating because of their complex
nature. Strength and flexibility are tools that allow skaters to
respond well to training. However, the fatigue factor requires muscles
to rest and recover as part of the training, plan.
Training is a form of
stressing the body, which causes it to adapt and respond to future
demands at a higher performance threshold. If the stress of training is
consistently and correctly applied, the body will adapt in a positive
way. Improperly and/or inconsistently applying stress will cause the
body to either not adapt or adapt negatively.
It is very important that coaches
their training programs on
training principles when developing their training program.
These generally agreed upon guidelines can consistently be
to all sports, including skaters.
The following information
best recommendations from the
sport scientists and generalizations good coaching practices that have
evolved in the sport of figure skating.
Exercise physiology is
the study of the
effects of exercise on the human body. Unfortunately the principles are
sometimes misapplied in sports. It is essential that coaches
understand how these principles operate
in sports practice and
Training Principles for ice skating include:
The Balanced Principle is a broadly applied principle that concerns achieving the right proportions of training activities.
The Individualization Principle concerns adjustments in training based on needs of individual athletes.
Overload Principle provides guidance about training intensity and progression.
The Recovery Principle concerns rest and recovery between training bouts.
The Reversibility Principle provides guidance about detraining when athletes stop working out.
The Specificity Principle dictates how training changes athletes' bodies to prepare for the demands of their sports.
The Transfer Principle provides guidance on how training activities can speed up sport learning and performance in competition.
The Variation Principle provides direction about training cycles that prevent problems such as plateaus and over training effects.
Recommended Reading List:
Sample Workshop Registration Application
Principles of Training Athletes
Developing Course Materials
The Law of Counter Force | Team Lovato April 21, 2011 Counter Force is an important concept in all martial arts such as jiu jitsu, boxing, and muay thai.
PPT Forces & Newton's Laws The Law of Inertia; The Law of Acceleration; The Law of Force-Counterforce; Normal force, Tension, and friction; The vector nature of forces.
PDF Chapter 4 This chapter is about Newton's Three Laws.
The History and Philosophy of Astronomy Lecture 14: Isaac Newton July 27, 2010 Founding Father of Physics. Book 1: Basic Laws. Newton's 3rd Law of Motion: Force = Counter-force.
Training Plan for Success
The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
All materials are copy protected.
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.