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Determining Final GOE Value
of Spin Elements

What is a GOE?
       The Grades of Execution (GOE) awarded by a judges is not the same thing as a technical Level of an element determined by the Technical Panel. Both of these values are entered separately by accountants into the computer for each element. The computer programing automatically factors and determines the "clipped mean" marks of all of the judges on the panel so there is one mark for each element on the summary sheet. The summary sheet also lists the individual judge's GOE and Program Component marks.

       A higher Level for an element does not always result in a higher total score after GOEs are added to the base core value adjusted for levels.

       Elements that are poorly performed receive a minus (-) GOE from judges. Elements that are above the minimum standard for a "Zero" GOE, receive a plus (+) GOE.

       The  ISU Communication 1611 defines GOE deductions in Section IV. Updated Guidelines in establishing GOE for errors in Short Program and Free Skating.

Remarks:

       In both Singles and Pairs traveling, recentering, and counting the number of revolutions are decided by each judge on the severity of the error (major or minor error) and the corresponding GOE reduction.
   
Comparison of Spin Total GOE Values
In the following example, the Level 1 jump (CSp1) with a +1 GOE has a higher score than Level 1 (2A1)  with a -1 GOE, -2 GOE, and -3 GOE.

                                                      CSp1:   1.4 + 0.5 = 1.9
                                                      CSp1:   1.4  - 0.0 = 1.4
                                                      CSp2:   2.3  - 0.3 = 2.0
                                                      CSp3:   2.6  - 0.6 = 2.0
                                                      CSp4:   3.0  - 0.9 = 2.1

                                                    CoSp1:   1.1 + 0.2 = 1.3
                                                 CCoSp1:    2.3 - 1.5  = 0.8

In the following example, the Level 1 Flying Camel (FCSp1) with a "0" GOE has a higher score than with a -1 GOE, -2 GOE, and -3 GOE.

                                                      FCSp3:   2.0 + 1.5 = 3.5
                                                      FCSp2:   2.0 + 1.0 = 3.0
                                                      FCSp1:   2.0 + 0.5 = 2.5
                                                      FCSp1:   2.0  - 0.0 = 2.0
                                                      FCSp1:   2.0  - 0.3 = 1.7                                    
                                                      FCSp1:   2.0  - 0.6 = 1.4
                                                      FCSp1:   2.0  - 0.9 = 1.1

                                                      FCSp1:   2.0  - 0.0 = 2.0
                                                      FCSp2:   2.3  - 0.3 = 2.0
                                                      FCSp3:   2.8  - 0.6 = 2.2
                                                      FCSp4:   3.2  - 0.9 = 3.1

   Chart from Guidelines in establishing GOE for errors in Short Program and Free Skating
Spins
Camel Spin

-3
-2
-2
  0
+1
+2
+3
CSp1 -0.9
-0.6 -0.3 1.4
0.5
1.0 1.5
CSp2 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 1.8
0.5 1.0 1.5
CSp3 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.3
0.5 1.0 1.5
CSp4 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.6
0.5 1.0 1.5
Flying Camel

-3
-2
-2
  0
+1
+2
+3
FCSp1
-0.9 -0.6 -0.3 1.9
0.5 1.0 1.5
FCSp2 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.3
0.5 1.0 1.5
FCSp3 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.8
0.5 1.0 1.5
FCSp4 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 3.2
0.5 1.0 1.5
Spin Combination with change of position and no change of foot

-3
-2
-2
  0
+1
+2
+3
CoSp1 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 1.7
0.5 1.0 1.5
CoSp2 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.0
0.5 1.0 1.5
CoSp3 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.5
0.5 1.0 1.5
CoSp4 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 3.0
0.5 1.0 1.5
Spin Combination with change of position and change of foot

-3
-2
-2
  0
+1
+2
+3
CCoSp1 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.0
0.5 1.0 1.5
CCoSp2 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.5
0.5 1.0 1.5
CCoSp3 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 3.0
0.5 1.0 1.5
CCoSp4 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 3.5
0.5 1.0 1.5
   
Combination Spins

In the following example, the Level 1 Combination spin (CoSp1) with a +3 GOE has a higher score than the Level 4 Combination spin (CoSp4) with a -3 GOE.

                                                                        CoSp1:   1.7 + 1.5 = 3.2
                                                                        CoSp4:  3.0 -  0.9  = 2.1

           Chart from Guidelines in establishing GOE for errors in Short Program and Free Skating
Spins

-3
-2
-2
  0
+1
+2
+3
CoSp1 -0.9
-0.6 -0.3 1.7
0.5
1.5 1.5
CoSp2 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.0
0.5 1.5 1.5
CoSp3 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.5
0.5 1.5 1.5
CoSp4 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 3.0
0.5 1.5 1.5
   
All Spins
  
Number of features for Levels:   2 for Level 2,   3 for Level 3,   4 for Level 4
  1. A difficult variation in a basic or (for spin combinations only) in an intermediate position
  2. Another difficult variation in a basic position which must be significantly different from the first one and: 
  • spin in one position with change of foot – on different foot than the first one
  • spin combination without change of foot – in different position than the first one
  • spin combination with change of foot – on different foot and in different position than the first one
    3. Change of foot executed by jump
    4. All 3 basic positions on both feet
    5. Both directions immediately following each other in sit or camel spin
    6. At least 8 rev. without changes in pos./variation, foot or edge (camel, sit, layback, difficult
        upright), counts twice if repeated on another foot
  • spin in one position with change of foot – on different foot than the first one
  • spin combination without change of foot – in different position than the first one
  • spin combination with change of foot – on different foot and in different position than the first one
Additional features for the Layback spin:
     7.  One change of position backwards-sideways or reverse, at least 3 rev. in each position
           (counts also if the Layback spin is a part of any other spin)
     8.  Biellmann position after layback spin (SP – after 8 revolutions in layback spin)
     9.  Backward entry, change of edge and any type of difficult spin variation count as features 
           that can increase the Level only once per program (in the first spin they are attempted);

The following requirements are mandatory for Levels 2 to 4, both in Short Program and in Free Skating:

a)  for Spin Combinations with change of foot - all 3 basic positions;
b) for Spins with change of foot at least one basic position on each foot.

In any spin with change of foot the maximum number of features attained on one foot is two (2).

Positions: There are 3 basic positions: camel (free leg backwards with the knee higher than the hip level; however Layback, Biellmann and similar variations are still considered as upright), sit (the upper part of the skating leg at least parallel to the ice), upright (any position with skating leg extended or almost extended, which is not a camel position) and intermediate positions (all other positions).

Spin combinations: the number of revolutions in intermediate positions is counted in the total number of revolutions; intermediate positions can be considered as difficult variations in accordance with the definition of such variations, but a change of position can only be from one basic position to another basic position.

Spin in one position and Flying Spin: intermediate positions are allowed, counted in the total number of revolutions required by the Rules, but are not valid for Level features.

Change of edge: Such changes can be counted only if done in a basic sit position (from Bi to Fo) or in a camel position. Change of edge in order to be counted requires at least 2 full rev. on one edge followed by at least 2 full rev. on another edge in the same basic position.

Spin Variations -
Simple: A simple variation of position is a movement of a body part, leg, arm, hand or head, which
enhances but does not change the basic position of the main body core. A simple variation does not
increase the Level.

Difficult: A difficult variation is a movement of a body part, leg, arm, hand or head, which requires
more physical strength or flexibility and that, has an affect on the balance of the main body core. Only these variations can increase the Level.

Remarks:
• Backward entry, change of edge and any type of difficult spin variation count as features 
   that can increase the Level only once per program (in the first spin they are attempted);
• for camel, sit and layback positions once the position has been established a clear increasing
   of speed will be considered a difficult variation;
• camel spin includes position with the upper body turned upwards approximately 180%
  (upside down position);
• in any spin a clear jump within a spin started and landed on the same foot (at least 2
   revolutions before and after the jump in basic positions) will be considered as a difficult
   variation;
• in order to be counted as a Level feature backward entrance requires at least 2 rev. on a 
   backward outside edge.

Spins in both directions: Execution of spins in both directions (clockwise and counter clockwise) that immediately follow each other will be rewarded by counting this as an additional feature in all
Levels for sit and camel basic positions. A minimum of 3 revolutions in each direction is
required. A Spin executed in both directions (clockwise and counter clockwise) as above is considered as one Spin.

Change of foot to be considered requires at least 3 revolutions before and after the change.

Flying spins: in case of a “step over” in Short Program Level can not be more than 1, in Free Skating this does not count as a Level feature; in a flying sit spin “landing on the same foot as take-off or changing foot on landing” is counted as a Level feature only when sit position is attained.
   
Single Skating GOE Spin Error Guidelines - Judges
Fall -3 Less than required revolutions -1 to -2
SP: Less than required positions (2 revolutions in position) -2 to -3 Poor/awkward position(s), slow, traveling -1 to -3
SP: Positions in the air not attained (flying spins) -2 to -3 FS: Positions in the air  not attained (Flying spin/entry) Change of foot poorly executed (curve of entry/exit, moving to intermediate position etc.) -1 to -3
Touch down with both hands -2 Change of foot poorly executed (curve of entry/exit, moving to intermediate position etc.) -1 to -3


Incorrect take-off or landing in a flying spin -1 to -2


Touch down with free foot or one hand -1
   
Single Skating GOE Spin Positive Guidelines - Judges
  • good speed or acceleration during spin

  • ability to center a spin quickly

  • balanced rotations in all positions

  • clearly more than required number of revolutions

  • good position(s) (including height and air position in flying spins)

  • creativity and originality

  • good control throughout all phases

  • element matched to the musical structure

  
Finding the Final Value of a Specific Element

                              Example: FSSp3 (Flying Sit Spin Level 3) with a –2 GoE

1. Find the base score for FSSp3 in the Scale of Values (SOV) - ISU Communication 1611.


-3 -2
-1 0 +1 +2 +3
Flying Sit Spin
Level 3
 FSSp3  -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.6 0.5  1.0 1.5

2. Assume that FSSp3 has a GOE of -2. The amount the base score will be reduced in the appropriate column (-2 Column in this example!)



-3 -2
-1 0 +1 +2 +3
Flying Sit Spin
Level 3
 FSSp3  -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.6 0.5  1.0 1.5


3. Subtract that number from the base value

                        2.6 (base score) - .6 (value of –2 GOE deduction) = 2.0 (final score for that element)
   
Finding the GOE Expressed as a Positive or Negative Number

                                     Example: CCOSp3 (Change foot, change position spin Level 2) with a -.6 GoE

    If you know the final GOE score but you want to know what value it corresponds to on a –3 to +3 scale, you can look it up on the GOE chart. If you can't find that exact number, just find the number closest to it.

     Not all GOE's shown on the Details sheets appear on the GOE chart because the Details sheet will show the the average point value of the Judges’ Grade of Execution scores. If there are 5 or more judges, throw out the high & low before averaging.

1. In this example the GOE shown on the Summary Sheet is -0.6. The closest number to -0.6 on the Scale of Values Chart for a Level 2 Change Foot Change Position Spin is -0.7

Spins

-3 -2
-1 0 +1 +2 +3
CCoSp1
-0.9
-0.6
-0.3
1.8
0.5
1.0
1.5
CCoSp2 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.3
0.5 1.0 1.5
CCoSp3 -2.1
-1.4
-0.7 3.3
0.5 1.0 1.5
CCoSp4 -2.1 1.4 -0.7 3.9
1.0
2.0 3.0
 
2. The base value of 3.3 is reduced by -0.7.

Spins

-3 -2
-1 0 +1 +2 +3
CCoSp1
-0.9
-0.6
-0.3
1.8
0.5
1.0
1.5
CCoSp2 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.3
0.5 1.0 1.5
CCoSp3 -2.1
-1.4
-0.7 3.3
0.5 1.0 1.5
CCoSp4 -2.1 1.4 -0.7 3.9
1.0
2.0 3.0

3. Follow the column up to see the GOE class. It is expressed as a negative GOE (-1).


-3 -2
-1 0 +1 +2 +3
CCoSp1
-0.9
-0.6
-0.3
1.8
0.5
1.0
1.5
CCoSp2 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.3
0.5 1.0 1.5
CCoSp3 -2.1
-1.4
-0.7 3.3
0.5 1.0 1.5
CCoSp4 -2.1 1.4 -0.7 3.9
1.0
2.0 3.0

References:

ISU Figure Skating Judging

PDF The International Judging System (IJS)

PDF   IJS Judging Criteria

Resources:

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

IJS Competition Articles
          GOE Guidelines
          Calculation of Base Values & GOE Scores
PDF  Single/Pair Elements Levels of Difficulty 
PDF  Guidelines marking Single/Pair GOEs
          Calculating Base Values & GOE Scores
PDF  Changes in the Scales of Values
          GOE Spin Elements
          GOE Step Spiral Elements
PDF  Program Component Marking Ranges
PDF  Explanation of Components
          Planned Program Content
PDF  Planned Program Content Form
          Considerations - Performance  Feedback
          Does Outcome Equal Performance
          Summary of IJS Judging System

    
All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.


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