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Fitness Training & Sports

      Understanding the basic principles of training will help to understand the differences you will find among training programs.

      It is important to understand how different components of the human body function. Refer to basic anamotomy and exercise physiology to expand your fitness knowledge.

Different Fitness Categories

Cardiovascular Endurance / Aerobic Tests
Anaerobic Capacity
Reaction Time
Strength & Strength Endurance
Speed and Power (Anaerobic Power)

       Physical fitness is very important for all sports; however, it is specific skill sets that defines success in individual sports. There are tests for specific fitness components. However, coaches in some sports have developed sport specific tests that evaluate combined skills, technique and fitness components that are relevant to specific sports.

Examples of Sport Specific Fitness Tests - Source TopEndSports

Everyone - Competitive Athletes and Recreational Sports Participants Should be Physically Fit 
      Sports fitness training plans point the way to achieving peak performance. Well beyond fitness only, strategically-designed, sport-specific training programs use sound principles, test results, and coaching wisdom for developing athletes both mentally and physically.

      Setting goals establishes a path for athletes to follow so they can evaluate their progress in mastering sport skills. Goals are an effective motivational technique that stimulates athletes learning new skills and mastering their ability to perform at a high level in competition. Athletes tend to become more focused and committed to a training schedule when goals are clearly established and they know unquestionably when they have achieved them.

      There are six important steps in designing and carrying out plans to achieve dreams of converting championship performances into reality.

1. Set clear goals. List the long-term goals into annual or shorter term goals such as every 4 to 6 weeks. Write the goal in terms of outcomes that you will be able to measure to evaluate to what extent the athlete has ben able to accomplish.

2. Assess the baseline of the athletes skills to provide a reference point to meassure progress. This is a necessary part of the process of establishing goals. Consider the physical demands of the specific sport. The Principle of Specificity  is the science behind targeting the training to improve in your sport. A frank and honest assessment by the athlete of their own personal fitness and skills need to be compared  to see if there is a reality gap in the athlete's self perception and of parents and coaches. Revise the goals, if necessary, to set up a realistic plan for achieving agreed upon goals and a time table to achieve them.

3. Design your training plan. A training plan must be designed to build qualities that will best transfer to the physical, mental, and emotional demands of the sport. Start with the date of the most important competitions and work back to the present to establish a training calendar. Organize a long-term plan that includes training phases (e.g., conditioning, intensive work, in-season), and get specific with the types of training activities you'll perform in each phase. Refer to the Principle of Variation.

4. Start training. The plan should be precise as to the starting date of the first phase of your plan. Perform all your well-coordinated training activities on a daily and weekly basis.

5. Evaluate your progress. After the first phase of training, check where you are on the goals for fitness and skill tests. These are mile markers of your progress. If the plan is working, the athlete should be on schedule - not ahead or behind.

6. Revise your plan. Based on your test results after each phase, evaluate progress and make informed decisions about how you will revise your fitness training plan to keep you on track toward your goals.

      Repeat, Step 4 through 6 and incorporate any necessary revisions.

Recommended Reading:

Fitness programs: 5 steps to getting started -  Starting a fitness program is easier than you might think. Follow these five steps.

Fit For Life Lesson Plan  Design and Implement a Personal Fitness Plan. OVERVIEW: The NASPE national standards in physical education indicate a need for "students to exhibit a physically active lifestyle" and understand that "physical activity provides opportunities for enjoyment, challenge, self-expression, and social interaction."


  • Fitness training: Elements of a well-rounded routine - Mayo Clinic  Whether you're a novice taking the first steps toward fitness or an exercise fanatic hoping to optimize your results, a well-rounded fitness training program is includes five elements -  Aerobic fitness; Strength training; Core exercises; Balance training; Flexibility and stretching.
  • PDF Physical Fitness Training Plan  The Florida Public Safety Institute physical fitness training plan will include something from each of the four basic fitness components described above.

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Developing Training Plans for Athletes
Evaluation of Training
Age Training Guidelines
Components of Training Plan
Stages of Acquiring New Skills
Strategies for Training
Strategies for Competing
Fitness Training & Sports
Advanced Training
List Daily Training Tasks
Construction of a Training Plan
Developing An Annual Training Plan
Principles of Global Training
Competitive Training
Starting to Seriously Train
Skating Environment
Peaking Performance
Benefits of Cross Training
Principle of Varying Training
Varying Training Improves Results
Approaches to Training
Approaches to Jump Training
Transferring Knowledge & Skills
Aerobic Activities
Anaerobic Activities
Exercises to Develop Coordination
Off-Ice Activities For Skaters
Fitness and Conditioning
Off-Season Conditioning Activities
Tips for Long Distance Traveling
Mental Barriers to Training & Competing
Mental Considerations for Athletic Training
Mental Training Considerations
Mental Strategies for Training
Endurance Training Activities
Flexibility Training Activities
Bodyweight Exercise Training
Weight Training Activities
Brian Grasso Articles
Evaluation Assessment

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The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
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