The Learning Process
San Diego Figure Skating Communications
a non-profit educational organization
Fitness Program Components
What Constitutes Fitness?
Fitness can be discussed in terms of health or performance.
Fitness may be described as a set of attributes that an individual has acquired which increases their ability to perform physical activities. The diagram below (Fig 1) outlines the general components which make up and are required for physical fitness in sport. Mental fitness and diet could also be included, however, the diagram only refers to the main components of fitness which require physical activity and which bring about physiological changes in the body.
Improvements in performance depend upon the training methods used. Frequency, intensity, progressive overload, type of exercise, & specificity and recovery all play a part in determining performance.
Source - Intro of Fitness
Source - ExRx.net
on Physical Activity and
The components of a skill-related fitness program includes agility, balance, coordination, power, speed and reaction time.
General Physical Skills
Different components of fitness will recieve more or less emphasis in a
training program depending on the specific needs of each sport.
Explanations of Common Terminology
Frequency - Refers to the quantity of training sessions during a defined period of time, often a week. For example, an elite athletes may train twice a day, 5 times a week.
Intensity - Is defined by how hard a
player trains. The training instensity must be balanced by the fact
that too much exercise can lead to injury and fatigue and lower levels
will not produce the dedsired results. Elite players can train longer
and harder than players at a lower level. Intensity is linked to the
principle of progressive overload - the number of repetitions and how
many exercises/sets done.
Progressive overload & duration - Training
programs should consider the physiological mechanisms of each athlete
with the goal of causing an improvement in the targeted area. The
simple repetition of the same fitness exercises for for extended
periods of time will not guarentee improvement. Training status will
bnefit by gradually increasing the load that the body is working
against. Incorrect overload may bring injury and demotivation due to
over-zealous targets. The duration is the time spent in a training
session and is dependent upon the sport and individual.
Type of exercise & Specificity - All
training sessions and types of exercises must be designed to achieve
specific requirements of each individual sport and the needs of the
Reversibility - "Use it or lose it !"
What is gained through training will eventually be reduced or lost if
exercise is stopped or reduced. A sufficient level of general activity
should be planned during periods of inactivity between competitive
Recovery - Each athlete must be carefully monitored. The recovery period must be adjusted or the benefits can be lost due too short a recovery time can lead to over training again resulting in injury. Too long a recovery period will result in a serious loss of previous gains. This may cause the athlete to start their new training season at too high a burst of enthusiasm which also can result in injuries related to over training.
Fitness components are general qualities that everyone should participate in to extend their quality of live as they age. Fitness is a critical component of a healthy and active retirement. These components are the foundation of exercise/training programs.
Administrators recognize that the key to a complete individual is achieved through physical activities that can be satisfied through recreational/sporting activities that hopefully will continue after graduation. As a result, physical fitness is stressed in US colleges and universities.
Many schools have established Recreational Departments that work in conjunction with Health Services to promote a variety of recreational activities and sport leagues to provide opportunities for part and full-time students to participate in competitive events while attending college. Students who participate have available a sports medicine program to treat and rehabilitate any injuries that may occur while training and competing.
These recreational student athletes can range in their level of their training intensity and their desire to win. Mostly these individuals benefit from the camaraderie of participation without the "Win at any cost" that is so prevalent in NCAA levels of sports activities.
Body Composition - Understanding Body Compositiob Oct. 27, 2008 ... Body composition refers to the amount of relative fat to muscle you have in your body. What you need to know about body composition.
Understanding Body Composition Efforts to achieve thinness are often based on popular misconceptions about body weight and body composition. Being thin does not necessarily reduce one's health risk. In fact, obsession with becoming thin often leads to serious eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. Thinness simply refers to weighing less than the recommended values in age-height-weight tables. Leanness, on the other hand, refers to the muscle, bone, and fat composition of your body weight. Although some lean individuals may actually weigh more than their "tabled" ideal body weight, low body fat lessens the risk of health problems.
Body Composition BodyComposition.com is an online body composition website where you can enter your measurements and the online program will calculate your percent body fat.
Body Composition Tests The tests described below provide a way of measuring current levels of body composition components and for determining changes over time.
The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
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