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Determining the Final Value
of Required Elements


       An element's Grade of Execution (GOE) score is not the same thing as its Technical Level.  Coaches can enhance the potential value of each element by increasing its technical value that is added to the base value of the element.

       Judges award GOE marks. Levels are established by the Technical Panel. Both of these scores are entered into the computer by the accountants where the programing automatically factors and determines the "clipped mean" marks of the judges so there is one mark for each element. The summary sheet also lists the individual judge's GOE and Program Component marks.

       A higher Level does not always result in a higher total score as the skater may not be able to execute the more difficult level as the could have performed as a level 1 element. When the GOEs are added to the base core value, the may not be an net improvement resulting in extra points for increasing the element's difficulty and poorly performing the element receives negative GOEs.

       If the element is poorly done it will receive a minus GOE from judges.

       The  ISU Communication 1611 defines GOE deductions in Section IV. Updated Guidelines in establishing GOE for errors in Short Program and Free Skating.

Remarks:

       In both Singles and Pairs “Starting from the wrong edge” and “Unclear edge at take-off” in Flip or
Lutz jumps will be identified by the Technical Panel to the Judges and in the Protocols with the sign
“e”. Each Judge will then decide himself/herself on the severity of the error (major or minor error)
and the corresponding GOE reduction.
       In Jump Combinations/Sequences Half-loop (or “Euler”) (landing backwards) will be a listed jump.
Consequently the units “half-loop + Salchow/Flip” and “any jump landed backwards outside + halfloop
+ Salchow/Flip” will become jump combinations of 2 or 3 jumps correspondingly. Half-loop will have the Base Value and the GOE values of the single loop jump and will be identified by the Technical Panel to the Judges and in the Protocols as “1Lo”.

       The Singles and Pairs Technical Committee would like to remind Judges Singles Short Program jump should be immediately proceeded by connecting steps and/or by other comparable Free Skating movements. If there are no steps and movements or there is break between steps/movements and the jump, the GOE MUST be reduced according to the Guidelines.
  
GOE Jump Elements Error Guidelines
Errors in which final GOE must be a minus
Errors for which final GOE is not restricted
SP: One or more revolutions less than required
GOE -3
Poor speed, height, distance, air position
-1 to -2
SP: Combo consisting of one jump only
GOE -3 Lacking rotation (no sign)
-1
Downgraded (sign << )
-3
Under-rotated (sign < )
-1 to -2
SP: No required steps or movements
preceding jump
-3 SP: Break between required steps/move- ments & jump/only one step/movement preceding jump
-1 to -2
Fall -3 Poor positions -1 to -3
Landing on two feet in a jump
-3 Loss of flow/rhythm between jumps (combo/sequence)
-1 to -2
Stepping out of landing in a jump
-2 to -3 Weak landing (bad position, wrong edge, scratching etc.)
-1 to -2
Touch down with both hands in a jump
-2
Long preparation (telegraphing)
-1 to -2
2 three turns in between (jump combo)
-2 Touch down with one hand or free foot
-1
Starting from wrong edge in Flip or Lutz, (sign “e”)
-2 to -3
Unclear edge at take-off in Flip or Lutz, (sign “e”)
-1 to -2
   
Jumps
In the following example, the Level 1 jump (1A1) with a +1 GOE has a higher score than Level 1 (2A1)  with a -3 GOE.

                                                                       
1A1:   1.1 + 0.2 = 1.3
                                                                       
2A<:  2.3 - 1.5  = 0.8

In the following example, the Level 1 jump (2F1) with a "0" GOE has a higher score than Level 1 (2LZ1<)  with a -3 GOE or a (2Lz1E) with a -2 GOE.

                                                     2Lz1<:  2.1 - 0.9  = 1.2
                                                     2Lz1E:  2.1 - 0.7  = 1.4
                                                          2F1:  1.8 + 0   = 1.8

   
       Chart from Guidelines in establishing GOE for errors in Short Program and Free Skating
Jumps

-3
-2
-2
  0
+1
+2
+3
1A1 -0.6
-0.4 -0.2 1.1
0.2
0.4 0.6
2A1 -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 3.3
0.5 1.0 1.5
2A1< -1.5 -1.0 -0.5 2.3
0.5 1.0 1.5
2F1 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 1.8
0.3 0.6 0.9
2Lz1
-0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.1
0.3 0.6 0.9
2Lz1<
-0.9 -0.6 -0.3 1.5
0.3 0.6 0.9
    
Combination Spins

In the following example, the Level 1 Combination spin (CoSp1) with a +3 GOE has a higher score than the Level 4 Combination spin (CoSp4) with a -3 GOE.


                                                                       
CoSp1:   1.7 + 1.5 = 3.2
                                                                       
CoSp4:  3.0 -  0.9  = 2.1

        
           Chart from Guidelines in establishing GOE for errors in Short Program and Free Skating
Spins

-3
-2
-2
  0
+1
+2
+3
CoSp1 -0.9
-0.6 -0.3 1.7
0.5
1.5 1.5
CoSp2 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.0
0.5 1.5 1.5
CoSp3 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.5
0.5 1.5 1.5
CoSp4 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 3.0
0.5 1.5 1.5
    
All Spins
  
Number of features for Levels:   2 for Level 2,   3 for Level 3,   4 for Level 4

  1. A difficult variation in a basic or (for spin combinations only) in an intermediate position
  2. Another difficult variation in a basic position which must be significantly different from the first one and: 
  • spin in one position with change of foot – on different foot than the first one
  • spin combination without change of foot – in different position than the first one
  • spin combination with change of foot – on different foot and in different position than the first one
    3. Change of foot executed by jump
    4. All 3 basic positions on both feet
    5. Both directions immediately following each other in sit or camel spin
    6. At least 8 rev. without changes in pos./variation, foot or edge (camel, sit, layback, difficult
        upright), counts twice if repeated on another foot
  • spin in one position with change of foot – on different foot than the first one
  • spin combination without change of foot – in different position than the first one
  • spin combination with change of foot – on different foot and in different position than the first one
Additional features for the Layback spin:
     7.  One change of position backwards-sideways or reverse, at least 3 rev. in each position
           (counts also if the Layback spin is a part of any other spin)
     8.  Biellmann position after layback spin (SP – after 8 revolutions in layback spin)
     9.  Backward entry, change of edge and any type of difficult spin variation count as features 
           that can increase the Level only once per program (in the first spin they are attempted);

The following requirements are mandatory for Levels 2 to 4, both in Short Program and in Free Skating:

a)  for Spin Combinations with change of foot - all 3 basic positions;
b) for Spins with change of foot at least one basic position on each foot.

          In any spin with change of foot the maximum number of features attained on one foot is two (2).

Positions: There are 3 basic positions: camel (free leg backwards with the knee higher than the hip level; however Layback, Biellmann and similar variations are still considered as upright), sit (the upper part of the skating leg at least parallel to the ice), upright (any position with skating leg extended or almost extended, which is not a camel position) and intermediate positions (all other positions).

Spin combinations: the number of revolutions in intermediate positions is counted in the total number of revolutions; intermediate positions can be considered as difficult variations in accordance with the definition of such variations, but a change of position can only be from one basic position to another basic position.

Spin in one position and Flying Spin: intermediate positions are allowed, counted in the total number of revolutions required by the Rules, but are not valid for Level features.

Change of edge can be counted only if done in a basic sit position (from Bi to Fo) or in a camel position. Change of edge in order to be counted requires at least 2 full rev. on one edge followed by at least 2 full rev. on another edge in the same basic position.

Spin Variations -

Simple: A simple variation of position is a movement of a body part, leg, arm, hand or head, which
enhances but does not change the basic position of the main body core. A simple variation does not
increase the Level.

Difficult: A difficult variation is a movement of a body part, leg, arm, hand or head, which requires
more physical strength or flexibility and that, has an affect on the balance of the main body core. Only these variations can increase the Level.

Remarks:
• Backward entry, change of edge and any type of difficult spin variation count as features 
   that can increase the Level only once per program (in the first spin they are attempted);
• for camel, sit and layback positions once the position has been established a clear increasing
   of speed will be considered a difficult variation;
• camel spin includes position with the upper body turned upwards approximately 180%
  (upside down position);
• in any spin a clear jump within a spin started and landed on the same foot (at least 2
   revolutions before and after the jump in basic positions) will be considered as a difficult
   variation;
• in order to be counted as a Level feature backward entrance requires at least 2 rev. on a 
   backward outside edge.

Spins in both directions: Execution of spins in both directions (clockwise and counter clockwise) that immediately follow each other will be rewarded by counting this as an additional feature in all
Levels for sit and camel basic positions. A minimum of 3 revolutions in each direction is
required. A Spin executed in both directions (clockwise and counter clockwise) as above is considered as one Spin.

Change of foot to be considered requires at least 3 revolutions before and after the change.

Flying spins: in case of a “step over” in Short Program Level can not be more than 1, in Free Skating this does not count as a Level feature; in a flying sit spin “landing on the same foot as take-off or changing foot on landing” is counted as a Level feature only when sit position is attained.
   
Single Skating GOE Spin Error Guidelines
Fall -3 Less than required revolutions -1 to -2
SP: Less than required positions (2 revolutions in position) -2 to -3 Poor/awkward position(s), slow, traveling -1 to -3
SP: Positions in the air not attained (flying spins) -2 to -3 FS: Positions in the air  not attained (Flying spin/entry) Change of foot poorly executed (curve of entry/exit, moving to intermediate position etc.) -1 to -3
Touch down with both hands -2 Change of foot poorly executed (curve of entry/exit, moving to intermediate position etc.) -1 to -3


Incorrect take-off or landing in a flying spin -1 to -2


Touch down with free foot or one hand -1
     
Single Skating GOE Spin Positive Guidelines
  • 1) good speed or acceleration during spin

  • 2) ability to center a spin quickly

  • 3) balanced rotations in all positions

  • 4) clearly more than required number of revolutions

  • 5) good position(s) (including height and air position in flying spins)

  • 6) creativity and originality

  • 7) good control throughout all phases

  • 8) element matched to the musical structure

    
Finding the Final Value of a Specific Element

                              Example: FSSp3 (Flying Sit Spin Level 3) with a –2 GoE

1. To find the base score for FSSp3, consult the Scale of Values (SOV) - ISU Communication 1611. This base value or number is the same for anyone who does this element at that particular Level and GOE.

Assume that FSSp3 has a GOE of -2.
   

-3 -2
-1 0 +1 +2 +3
Flying Sit Spin Level 3
 FSSp3  -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.6 0.5  1.0 1.5
   
2. The amount the base score will be reduced in the appropriate column (-2 Column in this example!)
 


-3 -2
-1 0 +1 +2 +3
Flying Sit Spin Level 3
 FSSp3  -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.6 0.5  1.0 1.5
   
3. Subtract that number from the base value
       
                        2.6 (base score) - .6 (value of –2 GOE deduction) = 2.0 (final score for that element)
  
Spiral Sequences

-3 -2
-1 0 +1 +2 +3
SpSq1  -1.0 -0.6 -0.3 1.8 0.5  1.0 1.5
SpSq2 -1.0
-0.6 -0.3 2.3
0.5 1.0 1.5
SpSq3 -2.1
-1.4 -0.7 3.1
0.5 1.0 1.5
SpSq4 -2.1
-1.4 -0.7 3.4
1.0
2.0 3.0
   
Spiral Sequences

Number of features for Levels: 2 for Level 2, 3 for Level 3, 4 for Level 4


    
GOE Spiral Error Guidelines
Fall
-3
Poor positions
-1 to -3
Less than half of the pattern in spiral position
-2 to -3
Stumble
-1 to -2


Poor edge quality
-1 to -2
     
Spiral Sequence GOE Positive Guidelines
  
2 bullets   for + 1;         4 bullets for + 2;         6 or more bullets for + 3; 
  1. good flow, energy and execution

  2. good speed during sequence

  3. good body line and full extension

  4. minimal delay between spiral positions

  5. good flexibility

  6. creativity and originality

  7. ability to attain positions and variations quickly and effortlessly

  8. element matched to the musical structure

   
Step Sequences

Number of features for Levels: 2 for Level 2, 3 for Level 3, 4 for Level 4

  • Simple variety (Level 2), variety (Level 3), complexity (Level 4) of turns and steps throughout (compulsory)

  • Rotations (turns, steps) in either direction (left and right) with full body rotation covering at least 1/3 of the pattern in total for each rotational direction

  • Use of upper body movements

  • At least half a pattern on one foot only

  • Combination of difficult turns (rockers, counters, brackets, twizzles) quickly executed in both directions (at least twice within the sequence)

CLARIFICATIONS: LEVELS OF DIFFICULTY:

Types of turns (executed on one foot) : three turns, twizzles, brackets, loops, counters, rockers.

Types of steps (executed on one foot whenever possible) : toe steps, chasses, mohawks, choctaws, curves with change of edge, cross-rolls, running steps.

Simple variety must include at least 7 turns & 4 steps, none of the types can be counted more than twice.

Variety must include at least 9 turns and 4 steps, none of the types can be counted more than twice.

Complexity must include at least 5 different types of turns and 3 different types of steps all executed at least once in both directions.

Use of upper body movements means the visible use for a combined total of at least 2/3 of the pattern of the step sequence any movements of the arms, head and torso that have an effect on the balance of the main body core.

Combination of difficult turns (rockers, counters, brackets, twizzles) quickly executed in both directions requires at least two turns in each direction.
     
Step Sequences

-3 -2
-1 0 +1 +2 +3
SI/Ci/Se1
-0.9
-0.6
-0.3
1.8
0.5
1.0
1.5
SI/Ci/Se2 -0.9 -0.6 -0.3 2.3
0.5 1.0 1.5
SI/Ci/Se3 -2.1
-1.4
-0.7 3.3
0.5 1.0 1.5
SI/Ci/Se4 -2.1 1.4 -0.7 3.9

1.0
2.0 3.0
    
Single Skating GOE Step Sequence Error Guidelines
Errors for which GOE must be minus
Errors for which final GOE is not restricted
Fall
-3
SP: Incorrect pattern
-1 to -2
Less than half of the pattern doing steps/turns
-2 to -3
Poor quality of steps, turns, positions
-1 to -3


Stumble
-1 to -2


SP: Jumps with more than half rev. included
-1
   
Step Sequence
  
2 bullets   for + 1;         4 bullets for + 2;         6 or more bullets for + 3; 
  1. good energy and execution

  2. good speed or acceleration during sequence

  3. good clarity and precision

  4. deep clean edges (including entry and exit of all turns)

  5. good control and commitment of whole body to accuracy of steps

  6. creativity and originality

  7. effortless throughout

  8. element matched to the musical structure

    
  
      Finding the GOE Expressed as a Positive or Negative Number


                                     Example: SpSq 4 (Spiral Sequence, Level 4) with a -.6 GoE

      If you know the final GoE score but you want to know what value it corresponds to on a –3 to +3 scale, you can look it up on the GoE chart. If you can't find that exact number, just find the number closest to it. Not all GoE's shown on the Details sheets appear on the GOE chart because the Details sheet will show the the average point value of the Judges’ Grade of Execution scores. If there are 5 or more judges, throw out the high & low scores before averaging.

 1. In this example let's say the GOE shown on the Details sheet is -.6. Find the closest number to it on the Scale of Values chart under the Level identified for that element. In this case -.7 is the closest we can find to the -.6 average shown on the Details sheet.

2. Find the amount the base score will be reduced by under the appropriate column (-2 Column)

3. Now read up to see the GOE expressed as a  positive, negative or base value. This spiral sequence has a -1 GOE.

References:

IJS Judging Rules & Regulations -

Test Judging Topics
  

Resources:
   
The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

IJS Competition Articles
          GOE Guidelines
          Calculation of Base Values & GOE Scores
PDF  Single/Pair Elements Levels of Difficulty 
PDF  Guidelines marking Single/Pair GOEs
          Calculating Base Values & GOE Scores
PDF  Changes in the Scales of Values
          GOE Spin Elements
          GOE Step Spiral Elements
Final Element Score  
Program Components
PDF  Program Component Marking Ranges
PDF  Explanation of Components
          Planned Program Content
PDF  Planned Program Content Form
          Considerations - Performance  Feedback
          Does Outcome Equal Performance
          Summary of IJS Judging System

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.


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