The Incentive Theory suggests that people are
pulled toward behaviors by rewards (incentives).
Extrinsic (external) motivation is any influence comes from an outside
source. An intrinsic (internal) motivation is any motivation comes from
and provides a sense of satisfaction. Incentives can provide negative
motivation, a promise of an unpleasant
outcome, that can be avoided if a specific behavior is performed.
Decisions are not made in a vacuum. There are
various external factors or
influences that affect how we function, our objectives, and
short and long term strategies.
A major factor that affects us is the number
and degree of obstacles that may prevent the successful
implementation of a decision.
Possible factors that can affect our
– how people in our social/per group behave and their beliefs,
- Legal – legislation, codes, and
regulations made by society puts acceptable limits on our behavior,
– how the our national and local economy affects affects our net
- Political –
how changes in local. state, and national elections can affect
government policy that might limit or expand our opportunities,
- Technological – how the rapid pace of
changes in technology can limit or expand our opportunities,
Social changes occur as individuals in
our local and national communities adjust their
attitudes concerning how the live and conduct themselves. As a member
of society, we need to be aware of our social responsibilities. The way
we conduct our self towards the
different parts of society influences who we associate with and how we
make decisions to support or separate ourselves from the groups that we
- Ethical –
what is regarded as morally right or wrong regarding our personal,
social, and business conduct.
How we act and behave in our
private life and in groups may be the identical or may be tailored to
each group - social, business, family, school, church, sports, and
political organizations. Keeping track of what persona you
present to each group can become very difficult and cause embarrassing
situations when the wrong persona is displayed. A fact that many
politicians have learned to their great dismay with cells phones
recording video and audio files that can easily be sent around the
world in a flash.
The decision to make post personal behavior on
facebook pages and other social sites have become very common among our
younger generation who have not grasped the concept that once sometime
is electronically distributed and proves to be very embarrassing, it
can never be completely removed.
Ad agencies design clever ways to
connection celebrations with the consumption of alcohol. High profile
sports telecasts are saturated with commercials to encouraging
celebrating with alcoholic beverages. A few decades ago cigarette
manufactures promoted their product using male and female images
portraying themes of enhancing sexual attractiveness.
There is an irony that our social
traditions can determine the types, amounts, and times of consuming
food and beverages based on the schedule of
that occur at home, at school, and/or work. Our social and work
structure doesn't encourage or promote the consumption
food and beverages based on our body receiving signals that it
is necessary to refuel our bodies.
Every new addition to a family (child or
pets) introduces a new set of dynamics between parents and each
addition. A new arrival also changes the interactions between each
sibling. The extent and manner in which each child will be
affected depends on their sex and age. Avoid using sexual stereotypes
when assigning chores and establishing expectations.
Methods of how to change habits
the following suggestions:
There are tangible factors to
use in determining who is best suited to be an external influence
Learn how to recognize
patterns of behavior associated with
specific conditions that may trigger subject's behaviors,
Develop a plan to
replace old habits with new and more positive
Replace old habits
with new and more positive
because any changes of habits is
difficult. Attempting to make too many changes, even small changes, in
too little time
is extremely difficult and more likely not to be successful.
However, a recipe for disaster is to
attempt to make drastic changes without sufficient preparation and/or
sufficient time to accomplish the "make over".
Research suggests that good teachers, coaches, and individuals in a
leadership position possess a few simple, quantifiable
There are intangibles factors to
use in determining who is best suited to be an external influence
Verbal and cognitive
ability. An adults
and cognitive abilities are strongly tied to their success in
communication with children.
Adequate knowledge of
Not everyone is well versed in all subjects. A person's subject matter
contributes to their ability to communicate only up to a certain point.
They must be able to conserve at the level of the learn, otherwise
there is a serious break down in communication.
Knowledge of how to teach
their subject areas.
is more important, a person's knowledge of subject matter or their
of how to communicate their pedagogical
of the subject matter. Baumert and colleagues (2010)
tested 194 high school mathematics teachers on both their math skills
and their knowledge of how to teach difficult math concepts. They found
that although content knowledge is essential, teachers who also possess
strong pedagogical content knowledge are more effective than
those with content knowledge alone.
- Ethical and moral code
should be in agreement with your values before you allow any individual
to be in a position of influencing your children.
There are attributes that can be
measured or quantified quite easily. However, the really great
teachers, coaches, and individuals in a leadership position,
also possess many
intangible attributes. Here are a few intangibles that research links
- Belief that all students
learn. Since the famous
Rosenthal experiment in the late 1960s, the Pygmalion effect —
observation that teachers' expectations for their students affect how
well students learn — has been well documented (Hattie, 2009).
- Belief in their own
A RAND study conducted more than 30 years ago (Armor et al., 1976)
found links between student achievement and teachers' sense of
efficacy — their belief in not just their students' ability to succeed,
but also their own ability as teachers to help those students succeed.
- Ability to connect with
Cornelius-White (2007) conducted a meta-analysis of research on
teacher-student relationships and found that teachers' warmth, empathy,
and "nondirectivity" strongly correlated to higher levels of student
participation, motivation, and achievement.
sports associations, and other youth organizations use a background
check to determine if there is any public record of a new hire
or volunteer has any convictions
involving child and physical abuse charges.
This is a positive step to screen new staff members
who might potentially be a predator of
Theory There are two basic kinds of attributions
made: Internal and External. The meaning of a behavior depends on the
cause to which it is attributed ... behavior) the factors affecting the
attributions that the observer will make are: ... To the extent that
the B believes that the A's actions are meant to affect him/her, the
action is personal.
7: Human Society
Human behavior is affected
both by genetic inheritance and by experience. .... External
factors — including war, migration, colonial domination, imported
... terms, the amount of living space, or a personal feeling of
suitability as parents.
Influences: Culture - KnowThis.com Culture represents the
behavior, beliefs and, in many cases, the way we
act learned by interacting or observing other members of society. In
this way much of what we do is shared behavior, passed along from one
member of society to another.
for Breaking Bad Habits and Developing Good Habits If you know how to change your habits,
then even a small effort can create big changes. This article will help
you break bad habits and develop good ones.
Importance of Yoga for Sports Persons Feb. 5, 2011 Yoga is a
holistic system - teaching skills which many sports persons seek, such
as control over the mind, control over the body, good breathing, etc.
- Autonomic Nervous
System - NDRF The
autonomic nervous system conveys sensory impulses from the blood
vessels , the heart and all of the organs in the chest, abdomen and
Disorder All kids have
worries and doubts. But some have obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD)
in which their worries compel them to behave in certain ways.
The following internet
links have been
gleaned from personal communications
public institutions and athletic
have a web presence with information concerning team
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for the source of the materials.