The Learning Process
hosted by
San Diego Figure Skating Communications
a non-profit educational organization

The Evaluation of
Learning & Training

Group Classes Promote Acquisition of Skating Skills
       Both rink management and the respective skating organizations share an interest in promoting new individuals to the rink through the use of group classes to impart beginning skills. Ideally many of these individuals will continue participating in more advanced group classes and eventually joining one of the skating organizations where they will continue to participate for many years.

       Such clubs or leagues are organized as non-profit, which requires them to have a realistic business plan to carefully controls expenses such as:
  • Purchase ice for hockey practice sessions and league games.
  • Purchase ice for figure skating programs such as -
    • Synchronized and Theater on Ice teams,
    • Conduct test sessions,
    • Host skating competitions, ice carnivals, shows, and
    • Other activities such as workshops and seminars.
  • Purchase ice for speed skating practices and hold races.
  • Purchase ice for curling practices and matches.
       Obviously if there is a high rate of return business, something must be working properly. Often  management does not actively attempt to collect the reactions of the participant in an effort to measure "customer satisfaction". Far too often the first indication management receives of a problem is through oral and written complaints that express dissatisfaction and negative feelings that are likely to be communicated to their friends and acquaintances.

       The most valuable measurement of effectiveness and usefulness of the training program is at the time the participants are experiencing it - not at some later date that is sometimes weeks or even months after they ceased registering for new classes.    

       Feedback can be as simple as a survey that is handed out on the last class session of a series of classes. To help insure that they are turned in that day, provide a discount coupon for enrolling in the next series of classes. You might even double the coupons value if they enroll that day for the next series of classes.

The classic adage is obtain a high rate of continuation of the business association
as this is cheaper than the cost of attracting a brand new customer through adver-
tising in newspaper or via the internet.

       The group class program can be a source of contacts for the skating instructors/coaches to obtain private lessons when the skaters feel a need for more individual attention that will assure faster progress towards the athlete (and parents) obtaining their future achievement goals.

Kirkpatrick's Training Evaluation Mode

    Donald L Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model is constructed of four methods of evaluating what a student has learned. His model is widely used in business models. This model can easily be adapted to be used in developing and managing a skating program by rink management and the board of directors of the local skating clubs, associations, and leagues affiliated with the rink.

Background of Author

      Donald L Kirkpatrick, Professor Emeritus, University Of Wisconsin (where he achieved his BBA, MBA and PhD), first published his ideas in 1959, in a series of articles in the Journal of American Society of Training Directors. The articles were subsequently included in Kirkpatrick's book Evaluating Training Programs (originally published in 1994; now in its 3rd edition - Berrett-Koehler Publishers).

      He also was president of the American Society for Training and Development (ASTD) in 1975. Kirkpatrick has written several other significant books about training and evaluation, more recently with his similarly inclined son James, and has consulted with some of the world's largest corporations.

      The 1994 book Evaluating Training Programs defined his originally published ideas of 1959, thereby further increasing awareness of them, so that his theory has now become one of the more widely used and popular model for the evaluation of training and learning. Kirkpatrick's four-level model is now considered an industry standard across the HR and training communities.

      More recently Don Kirkpatrick formed his own company, Kirkpatrick Partners, whose website provides information about their services and methods, etc.

Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation model -
     The four levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluation model essentially measure:
  • Reaction of student - what they thought and felt about the training
  • Learning - the resulting increase in knowledge or capability
  • Behavior - extent of behavior and capability improvement and implementation/application
  • Results - the effects on the business or environment resulting from the trainee's performance

     All these measures are recommended for full and meaningful evaluation of learning in organizations, although their application broadly increases in complexity, and usually cost, through the levels from level 1-4.

Quick Training Evaluation and Feedback Form, based on Kirkpatrick's Learning Evaluation Model - (Excel file)

Refer to Kirkpatrick Evaluating Training Programs

      Other evaluation models that may also be useful include:

  • Jack Phillips' Five Level ROI Model
  • Daniel Stufflebeam's CIPP Model (Context, Input, Process, Product)
  • Robert Stake's Responsive Evaluation Model
  • Robert Stake's Congruence-Contingency Model
  • Kaufman's Five Levels of Evaluation
  • CIRO (Context, Input, Reaction, Outcome)
  • PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)
  • Alkins' UCLA Model
  • Michael Scriven's Goal-Free Evaluation Approach
  • Provus's Discrepancy Model
  • Eisner's Connoisseurship Evaluation Models
  • Illuminative Evaluation Model
  • Portraiture Model
  • American Evaluation Association
  • <><>Leslie Rae's Excellent Training Evaluation and Tools available on this site, which, given Leslie's experience and knowledge, will save you the job of researching and designing your own tools.

Introduction - Modifying Skills and Habits

Developing Personality Traits and Character Traits

Training Considerations

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Physical and Mental Training Considerations
PDF  Weight-training Exercises
PDF  Strength Training Exercises
PDF  Power Skating Classes
PDF  Core Body Training
PDF  Endurance Training Plan

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

Athlete Concerns     Collection of Related Ideas    Skating Articles    Related Topics      

Ice Skating Rink Index    Topic Index    Site Index   Home Page