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Enhancing Endurance Training

What are Endurance Training Activities
      Endurance exercises include activities - walking, jogging, swimming, biking - that increases the heart rate and breathing for an extended period of time.

      The objective is to begin low rate and increase the workouts to a moderate-to-vigorous level that increases your breathing and heart rate considered to be appropriate for the age and physical condition of the athlete.

Moderate Activities: Vigorous Activities:
Bicycling on level terrain
Cycling on a stationary bicycle
Canoeing on a lake
Gardening (power mowing, hand raking)
Golf, without the use of a golf cart
Jumping Rope (single)
Mopping or scrubbing floor
Rowing
Social Dancing
Swimming
Tennis (doubles)
Volleyball
Walking briskly on a level surface
Ballroom Dancing (competitive)
Brisk bicycling up hills
Canoeing - whitewater
Climbing stairs or hills
Cross-country skiing  
Downhill skiing
Digging post holes
Hiking
Jogging
Jumping Rope  (competitive)
Shoveling snow
Swimming laps
Tennis (singles)
   
       Upon reaching the target goal, divide the exercising into sessions (minimum of 10 minutes at a time), with a total of 30 minutes per day. Exercising less than 10 minutes at a time does not provide the desired cardiovascular and respiratory system benefits.       

The goal is to build up to a minimum of 30 minutes of endurance exercise on 5
of the 7 days of the week. Shorter sessions more often is better than 2 or 3 lengthy
sessions a week.

       Stay hydrated. Be sure to drink liquids when you are doing any activity that makes you lose fluid through sweat. Don't wait until you feel thirsty as you likely to already somewhat dehydrated. This guideline applies to the cooler months, but it is especially important in hot weather, when dehydration is more likely to occur with more serious consequences.  Liquids containing caffeine should not be substituted for water. Commercial sports drinks are not necessary and are much more expensive than water.

     The goal of endurance training is to enhanced the metabolic regulation so that the body is able to more efficiently regulate your blood sugar levels and keep your energy levels balanced. Pursuing endurance exercises that are challenging, yet fun will be most likely to see continued participation.

     Do a little light activity before and after your endurance exercise session, to warm up and cool down (example: easy walking).

     Stretch after your endurance activities, when your muscles are warm.

     Be sure to drink liquids when you are doing any activity that makes you lose fluid through sweat. The rule of thumb is that, by the time you notice you are thirsty, you are already somewhat dehydrated (low on fluid).

     Gradually build up the amount of time you spend doing endurance activities at first and later increase the difficulty of the activities. Example: First, gradually increase your time to 30 minutes over several days to weeks (or even months, depending on your condition) by walking longer distances, then start walking up steeper hills or walking more briskly.

The yearly training phases typically increase endurance training by
varying degrees of
within the structure of the training exercises

Source -  Coaching-Kids-Sports

Pre Season - dominated by aerobic endurance with increasing anaerobic training as the competition phase draws closer

Competition Season - both kids aerobic and anaerobic exercise included, but a major focus on the energy system most required for the specific sports game or activity

Taper - a definite reduced level of aerobic activity and increased anaerobic activity to help the body ‘peak’.

Post Season - have a rest!

Off Season - cross train, participate in a non competitive activity or play a different sports game. Representative athletes may use the off season to improve their ‘weaknesses’.

Kids need to make the connection between the endurance activities you are
subjecting them too and the sports game or activity they compete in.

You as coach need to break the sport down and identify what levels of endurance are required.

Work specifically to the sport specific endurance demands.

      Keep the kids focused, motivated, challenged without totally destroying them and be very forthcoming with positive praise

      Most coaches will encounter kids who want to play, but struggle for a number of reasons; overweight, low self esteem, laziness, and/or lack of parental support.

      The key ingredient to producing a successful training program is the ability to recognize that quality of execution is profoundly more important than quantity. Coaches, trainers, and parents frequently push for more difficult training sessions that include high volume or high intensity activities rather than concerning themselves with how correctly the exercise is being performed.

      Poor execution results in habitual patterns are extremely difficult habits to break. This decision can result in higher rates of injury. Proper endurance training mechanics are often mistakenly compromised for higher volumes or intensities.

     One thing to consider is that the term 'endurance' has application to varying lengths and types of effort:

  • Long slow distances - efforts of limited intensity but high distance or time
  • Speed - efforts typically lasting 15 to 45 seconds with high levels of intensity but obviously limited time or distance
  • Muscular - the ability to sustain a muscular contraction for a prolonged period of time

     There are several factors to consider with respect to the development of endurance in a young athlete:

Mechanical/Coordination/Movement The efficiency of movement is a extremely important factor with respect to the endurance capabilities of a young athlete. Poor mechanics are reinforced with repetitive training and lead to higher degrees of fatigue. To increase the ability of a young athlete, coaches and trainers must exercise patience and teach proper movement habits rather than requiring endless numbers of incorrect performed sets. By mastering the technique, it is possible to improve endurance without increasing training volume.

Body Type Increasing body mass above the norm for age and height of a young athlete decreases endurance. Being overweight often leads to poor mechanical efficiency. 

Psychological Do not expect young athletes to poses significant amounts of mental toughness. Trainers and coaches often require mandatory drills and exercises in an attempt to produce some sort of perceived mental strength. Warning: Both the physical structure and mental status of youngsters is tenuous, and can result in burnout or injury. It is desirable to present challenges to young athletes, providing respect for their individuality and the stage of development will result in positive feedback at the conclusion o the training. The exercises need to provide the opportunity to improve endurance and develop self confidence as they attempt new and more challenging things.

      Endurance training of young athletes may not produce immediate results, but is critical for long-term development. Increasing endurance allows the young athlete increase their tolerance to the amount of exercise intensity and duration in the future. Parents and athletes should not become pre-occupied with immediate effects. Like any other aspect of athletic development, endurance training is part of a continual, multi-tiered effort.

       Examples of endurance activities that are moderate for the average recreational athlete: 
Moderate:
  • Swimming
  • Bicycling
  • Cycling on a stationary bicycle
  • Walking briskly on a level surface
  • Golf, without a cart
  • Tennis (doubles)
  • Volleyball
  • Rowing
  • Dancing
        The following are examples of vigorous activities. 
Vigorous:
  • Climbing stairs or hills
  • Shoveling snow
  • Brisk bicycling up hills
  • Tennis (singles)
  • Swimming laps
  • Cross country skiing
  • Downhill skiing
  • Hiking
  • Jogging
Jumping Rope
       Jumping rope is an effective way to improve your cardiovascular endurance and is easy to learn, fun, inexpensive, and can be performed in teams. Jumping rope can burn up to 1000 calories per hour, tones muscles in both upper body and lower body, optimizes aerobic conditioning, improves your balance, agility, timing, and coordination.

Strength Training Recommendations for Young Athletes
      Although no specific age has been determined as a the safe age to start strength training, if performed in the right setting, strength training can be done without harm and has been shown to improve performance and decrease injury.

      Recommendations for safety:
  • Adult supervision,
  • Use of correct techniques,
  • Avoiding lifting maximal amounts of weights.

Learn more about strength training:

Other Adaptations to Endurance Training
      Following suitable training, the body becomes better able to produce ATP via aerobic metabolism. The adaptations that occur improve oxygen delivery and oxygen utilization, increase the rate of aerobic energy production and the utilization of fat fuel and reduce disturbances in the acid base balance. More specific adaptations are summarized in the table below:

Adaptations to Endurance Training
  

Respiratory
Enhanced O2 exchange in lungs
Improved blood flow through lungs
Decreased submaximal respiration rate
Decreased submaximal pulmonary ventilation
Cardiovascular
Increased cardiac output
Musculoskeletal
Increased mitochondrial size and density


Typical Endurance Training Mistakes:

#1: Isolated exercises do not produce any significant results. One-muscle-at-a-time moves simply don't stimulate enough muscle fibers to build lean muscle or expend enough energy to maximize your calorie burn.  Your exercise program should involve multiple exercises that stimulate as many muscles and expend as much energy as possible and at the same time.
 
#2: Working out with high-end, expensive exercise machines may make the gym look "professional", but the machines alter the way your body naturally moves and restrict your range of motion. This severely limits activating all of your muscles fibers and can cause excessive strain on your joints, leading to nagging injuries down the road. It's critical to incorporate exercises that allow your body to move in a natural, full range of motion so you can speed up your metabolism and tone your entire physique. 

#3: Doing long cardio exercise sessions requires a lot of effort with unnecessary stress on your joints to get minimal results.

#4: Doing traditional crunches and sit-ups to enhance ""as"" or any exercises that target your "as" won't make your ""as"" get any more defined and they definitely don't burn any fat. The key to getting sculpted ""as"" is to burn off that stubborn belly fat while stimulating your six abdominal muscles at the same time.

#5: Repeating the same workout routines over and over is a surefire way to STOP getting results. If you want to continue making progress and keep seeing changes in your body, you've got to start switching things up. The body has the ability to adapt quickly and when it does,  you hit the a plateau and stop making progress.
 
#6: Doing long workouts  do NOT equate to better or faster results. If your present exercise program at the gym isn't producing the changes you desire,  don't expect a different result doing more of the same thing!  Your body will respond better to quality rather than quantity.
     
Recommended Reading:

Developing A Training Plan

Physical and Mental Training Considerations

The Different Types of Endurance Training  Interval training, fartlek training, tempo runs... there are several distinct forms of endurance training - here they are with some sample plans...

VO2max - Your Aerobic Potential  Endurance training and VO2 max seem to inextricably linked. While maximal oxygen uptake is certainly not the be all and end all of endurance performance, understanding what it is and how it can be affected by training can help athletes better prepare themselves for competition...

Lactate Threshold - Tapping Your Aerobic Potential  Perhaps more indicative of success in endurance sports, an perhaps more trainable, is lactate threshold. Often a confusing subject for some coaches and athletes, from a practical point of view, improving lactate threshold is relatively straightforward...

How to Determine Your Anaerobic Threshold  There are several non-invasive tests used to determine the lactate and anaerobic threshold. What are they and which are the most reliable?

Lactate Threshold Training  Once you have determined your lactate threshold how can you improve it? While the experts debate even its existence, athletes can still benefit from delaying the onset of lactate accumulation...

Interval Training for Sport-Specific Endurance  Interval training is more demanding than continuous type training and brings about different adaptations. It may also be more suitable for multi-sprint sports such as hockey, rugby and soccer. However, even ultra-endurance athletes are finding that a reduction in volume in favor of some shorter, more intense interval training can improve performance...

How to Design a Fartlek Training Session for Your Sport  Fartlek may sound strange but it's a highly effective form of training. And with so many variations you need to make sure it's specific to your event...

Circuit Training For Endurance  Tried and trusted circuits for long distance athletes...

Heart Rate Training for Endurance Events  Heart rate is a temperamental thing. Yet its practicality continues to make it a popular training aid. Learn how best to use your heart rate to improve your endurance training sessions...

Using Heart Rate Reserve to Calculate Target Heart Rate  How to use the Karvonen formula and the heart rate reserve method for a more accurate target heart rate zone...

Altitude Training  Unquestionably, acclimatization to altitude improves performance at high levels but can altitude training improve an athlete's performance at sea-level?

Lactate Tolerance Training  Lactate tolerance training will help you to recover more quickly from successive bursts of speed and power. It will increase your tolerance to lactic acid and allow you maintain a high work rate for longer.

References:

10 commandments of endurance training  The 10 commandments of endurance training. By Vic Brown; Published Dec. 28, 2010.

Endurance Training For Sport

Different Types of Endurance Training  Interval training, fartlek training, tempo runs... there are several distinct forms of endurance training - here they are with some sample plans.

VO2max - Your Aerobic Potential  Endurance training and VO2 max seem to inextricably linked. While maximal oxygen uptake is certainly not the be all and end all of endurance performance, understanding what it is and how it can be affected by training can help athletes better prepare themselves for competition.

Lactate Threshold - Tapping Your Aerobic Potential  Perhaps more indicative of success in endurance sports, an perhaps more trainable, is lactate threshold. Often a confusing subject for some coaches and athletes, from a practical point of view, improving lactate threshold is relatively straight
forward.

How to Determine Your Anaerobic Threshold There are several non-invasive tests used to determine the lactate and anaerobic threshold. What are they and which are the most reliable?

Lactate Threshold Training  Once you have determined your lactate threshold how can you improve it? While the experts debate even its existence, athletes can still benefit from delaying the onset of lactate accumulation.

How to Design a Fartlek Training Session for Your Sport  Fartlek may sound strange but it's a highly effective form of training. And with so many variations you need to make sure it's specific to your event.

Interval Training for Sport-Specific Endurance  Interval training is more demanding than continuous type training and brings about different adaptations. It may also be more suitable for multi-sprint sports such as hockey, rugby and soccer. However, even ultra-endurance athletes are finding that a reduction in volume in favor of some shorter, more intense interval training can improve performance.

Circuit Training For Endurance  Here are two tried and trusted circuits for long distance athletes.

Physical and Mental Training Considerations

Resources:

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

  
Sports Seminars
On-Line Seminars
Seminar Ideas
Off-Ice Seminars
Enhancing Endurance Training
Enhancing Coordination
Basic Skating Skills Courses
Video Clips of Basic Skating Skills
PDF  Weekly Off-Ice Workouts

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.


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