Enhancing Skating Learning
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Effective Feedback -
assessment of communication

Feedback is used by teachers and coaches

        This tool provides an assessment if and how much transfer knowledge has occurred. The teacher or presenter must use feedback to determine if the communications have been on target or if modifications need to occur to get back on track.

        The secret of harnessing the power of effective feedback is through the use of a few simple techniques. It is vital that each athlete be provided with sincere and relevant information during private communications and/or to teams after after a practice session. Providing inspiration and helpful feedback by a coach after a poor performance in a practice or competition can become an important learning experience that may influence an athlete's future performances.

       There are three primary reasons for providing feedback to individual athletes and teams:

  • Motivation
  • Reinforce positive performances
  • Acknowledge improvement.
  • Assertation effectiveness of communication between teacher and learner

       Skaters generally know if they skated well for them compared to practice session. There may be a difference between how well they think they skated and the evaluation of the judges. In a test, the skater and coach will receive a copy of the judge's sheets. A coach can receive additional feedback from the judges at the test session or contact them later if time does not allow an opportunity when test schedules are very tight.  It is important for a coach to use the judge's comments to modify the emphasis on lessons to correct errors even if the test passed.

       Judges briefly see the skaters test performance from which they form perceptions they use to base their marks. While they point out problems and identify strengths/weaknesses, they can not be expected to provide detailed comments. Coaches can arrange for a judge to critique the skater for an in-depth analysis.

       At many open and all qualifying competitions, a videographer is available to tape skater performances. Coaches can view the DVDs after the competition to provide additional information about their performances. This combined with the summary sheets of IJS events helps the skater narrow the gap between what they perceived about what they did, what actually happened, but most importantly what they need to do for improve improvement.

Introduction to Program Evaluation
        Anyone familiar with instructional design, constructs a course outline by stating objectives, including how the objectives will be accomplished, and the methods that will be used to evaluate how well the objectives have been met. Formal educational courses include prerequisite courses for enrolling in advanced courses. A sports program such follow such a prerequisite skill requirements suitable for a specific sport:
  • Speed - 100 yard dash time trials
  • Strength - Specific weights for various weight training exercises
  • Stamina - Long distance time trials
  • Coordination - Balance and dexterity and specific skill development related to specific sport 
       Feedback is highly desirable between athletes and coaches in team and individual sports. In many individual sports, a coach should always establish good rapport with parents through regular communications.  Coaches should not wait until a crisis occurs to communicate concerns to athletes and parents.

       Coaches may think they are communicating the necessary information, but unless they have a way of having involving the athletes in a dialog - there may be a serious communications gap. Too many coaches determine their effectiveness by how well the athletes perform under stress in competitive events. It is more work to attempt to evaluate how the athletes implement the coach's knowledge in practice sessions and especially those that simulate competitive events.

       However, the earlier a coach can identify physical and mental areas that require correction can prevent errors technique from becoming converted into long term automatic muscle memory skills. There are different ways to evaluate how well the information has been communicated:
  • Motivate athletes - Provide positive and supportive statements soon after performances. A common technique used is positive-negative-positive.
  • Provide emotional support - This is not the time to attempt to communicate what actually occurred. Allow some time before attempting to bridge the gap between what a skater perceives he or she did, and a reality check as a coach or parent you attempt to provide!
  • Use videos - The use of video and instant real time and slow motion replay should be a part of every skater's training plan. This requires expensive equipment, setup time, and training on how to use the software/hardware so this is generally not used daily. Schedule this activity every few weeks to point out specific features that, as a coach, you want athletes to notice. 
This technology is helpful to point out both negative and positive features. Establish a video archive to demonstrate progress over several months. Schedule special off-ice time to review individual skater's progress. Don't over use as this tends to overwhelm younger skaters with too much information to process. When used judiciously, video analysis keeps a skater focused on the relevant tasks that need urgent and long term attention.
  • Positive reinforcement - Skaters, like most athletes, respond better to positive comments.
  • Negative reinforcement and/or punishment - Such techniques are usually ineffective with most athletes. Far too many coaches still use this strategy as a carryover from how they were taught.
  • Intermittent reinforcement - Each skater learns and process information independently. Coaches should not provide assistance on every practice session to avoid skater's dependence on coaching.
  • Instructional techniques - Stress the "how to" rather than "how not to do" something.
  • Critiquing performances - Analysis of strengths and weakness of a specific skating element.
  • Timing critiquing performances too frequently or infrequently. Early in learning, provide more information; later, when athletes acquire greater skill, provide it less frequently.
  • Develop Problem Solving Skills - Teach the concepts so skaters learn to analyze the problem themselves rather than always being provided with an answer.
  • Emphasize why mastering basic skills is necessary - Describe exactly how to identify cues to identifying critical errors and offer precise on how to correct them. As each error is corrected, transition to the next level with the appropriate cues.
  • Have skater describe the positive and negative aspects of their performances - Establishing this type of communication is a fundamental means of acquiring problem solving skills. Especially effective when skaters become teenagers and their perceptions differ from coaching directions and strategies.
  • Coaches should summary each competitive season - Before starting a new competitive season, coaches should summarize the previous season with an assessment of which goals were met and which are still a work in progress,
Recommended Reading List:

Modifying Skater Behaviors

Principles of Sports Training

Developing Course Materials


What is Motivation    Sometimes a distinction is made between positive and negative motivation. Positive motivation is a response which includes enjoyment and optimism.

Motivation. Big, Small, Negative, Positive    Aug. 1, 2003. Motivations comes in different sizes. Success accumulates.

How Negative Motivation Can Help Us Overcome Problems    Jan 29, 2008.  So how can you use negative motivation to make a positive impact on your life?

Positive Motivation Versus Negative Motivation     Jul. 13, 2009.  The difference between negative and positive motivation is the difference between surviving and living.

Psychology of Selfishness: Positive vs. Negative motivation    Feb. 11, 2009. Take this opportunity to stop and think for a moment: Is the pursuit of such values in your life a result of positive or negative motivation.

Coaching Feedback - Coach and Athletic Director  Find articles on coaching feedback from coaches and Athletic Directors.

Athletic Feedback Form - Haverford College  HCAA: Varsity - Athletic Feedback Form. Improvement is an ongoing process. The Athletic Department Feedback Form is intended to be a fluid document.

Recruiting High School Athletes - Recruiting Feedback | NCSA Visit NCSA's recruiting section and find everything you need to know about recruiting high school athletes.

Written References:

1. Magill, R.A. (2001). Motor learning: Concepts and applications (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

2. Schmidt, R.A. & Wrisberg, C.A. (2000). Motor learning and performance: A problem-based learning approach (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

3. Wrisberg, C.A. (2007). Sport skill instruction for coaches. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.


The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Training Principles for Athletes
Principles of Learning Sports
Athlete Training Principles
Sports Training for Children
Goals & Objectives for Skating
Sports Training Syllabus
Lesson Planning for Sports
Long Term Athlete Development

PDF  Trainability of Children
PDF  Trainability of Young Athletes
PDF  Writing Objectives
All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

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