The Learning Process
hosted by
San Diego Figure Skating Communications
a non-profit educational organization

Cumulative Learning Theory
By Robert M. Gagné

        Robert Mills Gagné was an educational psychologist who served as Professor in the Department of Educational Research at Florida State University. He is best known for his theory on the conditions of learning and on the nine events of instruction.

        The body of Gagné's work is sometimes summarized as the Gagné Assumption. Gagné's theory stipulates that different types of learning exist, and that different instructional approaches are required to maximize the achievement objectives of each specific learner. The focus of his theory is on the retention and honing of intellectual skills.

        Gagné's theory proposes that there are Nine Essential Steps of Instruction:
  1. Gain attention - Present stimulus to ensure reception of instruction.
  2. State the learning objective - What will the pupil gain from the instruction?
  3. Stimulate recall of prior learning - Ask for recall of existing relevant knowledge.
  4. Present the stimulus - Display the content.
  5. Provide learning guidance
  6. Elicit performance - Learners respond to demonstrate knowledge.
  7. Provide feedback - Give informative feedback on the learner's performance.
  8. Assess performance - More performance and more feedback, to reinforce information.
  9. Enhance retention and transfer to other contexts
        The development of rationally sound instructional procedures, according to Gagné, must take into consideration various characteristics of the learner, such as initiate capacities, experimental maturity, and current knowledge states. Such factors become parameters that should be used to design of any program of instruction.
Learning & Human Development
        The following chapters in Robert M. Gagné's book present his explanation of the nature of human intellectual development, cumulative learning theory.

        His Cumulative Learning Theory provides an alternative to the concept of instructional sequencing which was widely used.

Recommended Reading:

The Learning Process and Skill Development

Skill Development Environment

Mental Training


Learning Theory In our development of this instructional media, Robert Gagne's "Conditions of ... or objects of learning which consist of five major categories of human capabilities : ... Gagne's (1965) work has made significant contributions to the scientific study of how we learn.

Learning Topics:

Course 1, Chapter 4 - Theories of and Approaches to Learning March 9, 2006 ... Behaviorism is a theory of animal and human learning that only ..... Culture makes two sorts of contributions to a child's intellectual development

Theories of Learning - Lifecircles-inc Teachers and students of educational psychology, curriculum development, ... Theories about human learning can be grouped into four broad "perspectives".

PDF The Role of Experience in Learning: Giving Meaning ... earliest approach to learning for the human race, the significance and potential of it has not been ... education system it has tended to be developed and regarded as somehow ... sanguine contribution to make in defining how people learn.

PDF The Teacher's Guide to Diversity - The Education ... review, contributions, guidance, and suggestions during the preparation of this guide. This guide builds on ... Generalizations About Human Development Are Risky. ... Linking to Students' Knowledge and Ways of Knowing and Learning.

PDF Principles of Learning and Teaching: Grades K-6 ... Topics such as human development, learning processes, instructional processes, diverse learners, ... Knows the major contributions of foundational theorists


The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Learning Considerations
PDF  Attentional Focus
PDF  Spatial Disorientation
PDF  Effects of Mood on Performance
PDF  Confidence through Motivation
PDF  Transfer of Learning Issues

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

Athlete Concerns     Collection of Related Ideas    Skating Articles    Related Topics      

Ice Skating Rink Index    Topic Index    Site Index   Home Page