Components of Training Plan
Success is not an accident. It is the product of a thoughtful and well
executed plan in which the athlete simply does they are instructed by
their coach & supporting staff who developed the training plan.
Demands 5 Specific Training Components
The goal of athlete training
is to allow an individual or team to overpower the
competition. Athletes with successful training plans focus on the four
main areas of athletic ability:
A sports performance program
needs to focus on five individual components of sports conditioning to
allow an athlete to enhance
their ability. The five components of athletic conditioning are:
Sports fitness components are
physical qualities that must be developed in preparation for sport
competition. A sports training program should be designed to build
these components, in the ideal proportion, that are requirements of
The President's Council on
Physical Fitness and Sports classifies of
physical fitness components into:
- Performance related fitness components are - speed,
agility, power, balance, and coordination
- Health related fitness components are - cardio, strength,
endurance, flexibility, and body composition.
Essential Components of the Training Session
Composition — refers primarily to the distribution of
muscle and fat in the body. Body size such as height, lengths and
girths are also grouped under this component.
Strength — the ability to carry out work against a
Endurance — the ability to repeat a series of muscle
contractions without fatiguing.
— the ability to exert a maximal force in as short a time as possible,
as in accelerating, jumping and throwing implements.
- Speed / Quickness
— the ability to move quickly across the ground or move limbs rapidly
to grab or throw.
— the ability to quickly change body position or direction of the body.
— the capacity of a joint to move through its full range of motion,
which is important for execution of the techniques of sports.
- Balance and
Coordination — the ability to stay upright or stay in
control of body movement, an important component of many sports skills.
Endurance — or aerobic fitness, stamina, is the ability to
exercise continuously for extended periods without tiring.
- Motor Skill
— gross motor skills are the basic skills developed when young, which
can be developed upon with specific sports skills training.
Each training session
needs to contain the same essential
elements. The amount of time spent on each element will depend on the
goal of the training session, the time of season the session is in, and
the amount of time available for a particular session. The following
elements need to be included in an athlete's daily training program.
- The Warm-up: 25-30 minutes
- Specific Event Workout: 15-20 minutes
- Conditioning or Fitness Workout: 15-20
- The Cool-down: 15-20 minutes
The final step in
planning a training session is designing what
the athlete is actually going to do. When creating a training session,
remember that the progression through the key components of the session
should allow for a gradual buildup of physical activity.
The following elements need to
be included in an athlete's daily training program:
Progression of lessons should
allow for a gradual buildup of physical activity:
- Start with warming-up exercises
- Review previously taught skills
- Introduction of new skills
- Provide feedback to skaters
Principles of Effective Training
- Easy to difficult
- Slow to fast
- Known to unknown
- General to specific
- Start to finish
Learning is increased when
information progresses from:
- Keep all skaters focused
— Athletes need to be active
- Establish clear, concise
goals — Athletes need to know
exactly what is expected of them.
- Give clear, concise
instructions — Demonstration to
illustrate oral instructions.
- Record progress
— Chart athlete's weekly progress.
- Give positive feedback
— Emphasize and reward things the
athlete is doing well.
- Provide variety to prevent
- Stress the fun aspect of
learning — Training and
competition is fun — keep it this way for you and your athletes
Plan to maximum the use of
existing resources. Think creatively
and find substitutes or otherwise improvise for equipment that you lack.
- Known to unknown —
adding new things to familiar concepts
- Simple to complex —
start with the basic skills the learner
- General to specific
— take a generalized concept and
separating it into its simplest parts.
Allow for individual differences —
Different athletes, different
learning rates, different capacities.
Fitness for sport can be broken down into eleven individual components,
.... for this reason, all sports performers should try to vary their
to Design a Personal Exercise Program The following components are essential to
a safe, effective cardiovascular exercise program. While this sets a
foundation for training it is not an exclusive list.
Fitness defines the ability to perform
physical activity, and
encompasses a wide range of abilities. Each sport and activity requires
a specific set of skills, and so being fit for a sport requires a
specific skill set. However, being fit for one sport does not
you fit for another.
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