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Choreography & Artistic Performances in Sports

The form of the athlete is considered in some competitive events, but not in all sports
      In many sports, the technical form is not judged. A tape measure or stop watch are used to determine who wins and who loses. There are other sports that use officials to determine if the ball is in or out of bounds, a score has occurred, or foul/infraction of the rules has occurred.

      There relatively few sports that combine the technical/physical aspect of the sport with a performance/entertaining component. Ski jumping, gymnastics, diving, synchronized swimming, figure skating are example that incorporate presentation skills in the sport's marking system.

      The artistic presentation in figure skating programs involves such a complete display body control and artistic form. In addition, the skills are performed to a selection of music that incorporates simple to complex choreography to transition between musical highlights and technical elements.

Sport and the Artistic
S. K. Wertz, Texas Christian University

Recently David Best has advanced the claim that sport is not an art form, and that although sport may be aesthetic, it is not artistic. Such a claim is false and runs counter to ordinary usage and sport practice. On behalf of sport practice, let me cite as an example the world class Canadian skater, Toller Cranston, who thinks there are such things as ‘artistic sports, those being gymnastics, diving, figure skating’. (I might add trampolining and power- or weight-lifting to this category.) Best claims that athletes like Cranston are conceptually confused and that they endow sport with greater respectability than should be allowed. Ascribing the predicate ‘artistic’ to sport performances reflects ‘barbarous usage’. Why does Best exclude the artistic from the realm of sport? Upon examination of his argument, one finds that this exclusion derives mainly from his concepts of art and sport. He thinks that art has a subject matter, a content, and that sport does not. Sport is content less, so ‘sport’ and ‘art’ are two logically distinct regions. But is this so? Are we to accept Best's argument or are we to listen to accomplished, reflective athletes in the area of artistic sports? It seems the most reasonable analytic procedure would be to listen to Cranston's case and decide whether such a piece of intentionalist criticism should override Best's premises.

The dancer as a performing athlete: physiological considerations.
Koutedakis Y, Jamurtas A.  School of Sport, Performing Arts and Leisure, Wolverhampton University, Walsall, UK.

The physical demands placed on dancers from current choreography and performance schedules make their physiology and fitness just as important as skill development. However, even at the height of their professional careers, dancers' aerobic power, muscular strength, muscular balance, bone and joint integrity are the 'Achilles heels' of the dance-only selection and training system. This partly reflects the unfounded view, shared by sections of the dance world, that any exercise training that is not directly related to dance would diminish dancers' aesthetic appearances.

Given that performing dance itself elicits only limited stimuli for positive fitness adaptations, it is not surprising that professional dancers often demonstrate values similar to those obtained from healthy sedentary individuals of comparable age in key fitness related parameters. In contrast, recent data on male and female dancers revealed that supplementary exercise training can lead to improvements of such fitness parameters and reduce incidents of dance injuries, without interfering with key artistic and aesthetic requirements.

It seems, however, that strict selection and training regimens have succeeded in transforming dance to an activity practiced by individuals who have selectively developed different flexibility characteristics compared with athletes. Body weight targets are normally met by low energy intakes, with female dance students and professional ballerinas reported to consume below 70% and 80% of the recommended daily allowance of energy intake, respectively, while the female athlete 'triad' of disordered eating, amenorrhoea and osteoporosis is now well recognized and is seen just as commonly in dancers.

An awareness of these factors will assist dancers and their teachers to improve training techniques, to employ effective injury prevention strategies and to determine better physical conditioning. However, any change in the traditional training regimes must be approached cautiously to ensure that the aesthetic content of the dance is not affected by new training techniques. Since physiological aspects of performing dance have been viewed primarily in the context of ballet, further scientific research on all forms of dance is required.

PDF Principles of Movement Control That Affect Choreography Dance examples rather than sport examples in order for the choreographer to ... Both have the common goal of setting an artistic expression of movement onto a .... as dictated by the phrases and sections as well as other considerations.

Recommended Reading:
Sports Information

Sports Training

Choreographing Artistic Skating Program Tips that can help you successfully choreograph a figure skating routine. A skater should not use their competitive free skating program when entering artistic event.

Role of the Choreographer in Figure Skating  From the inception of Artistic Skating Components, there have been ... but careful consideration should be given to skating to non vocal alternatives.

Figure Skating Choreography Art Or Science   In all artistic and academic. Choreography: Figure skating's hidden edge | Jan. 11, 2007 That's why good choreography — the music and steps ...

Choreography Suggestions Choreography is not just stringing together steps and figures. ... merely suggestions to help you design a more engaging, entertaining, artistic and/or meaningful choreography. ... If you're doing a partnered dance, vary dance positions — waltz, skaters, open, akimbo, solo, etc. ... Give special consideration to floor patterns.

HowStuffWorks "Breaking down the Score"  A figure skating score in competition is based on the element score and grade of ... and artistic merit of the performances, as well as the other program components. ... The judges also take into consideration how effortless the skater's ... which is how well the skater or pair of skaters interpret the choreography and music.

The Lost Edge - Ice Skating International This accompanied a control of edges thereby acquiring an ice technique and an understanding ... To sum up, here we are today with the most artistic skaters injured and a judging system .... Total artistic conception should be taken into consideration: choice of music, style of costumes, theme of program and choreography.

Welcome to Sonia Bianchetti Garbato .:. Figure Skating Referee  Sept.  28, 2010 ... I usually enjoy watching kids and youngsters skating. ... though, I could not refrain from making some considerations on the inadequacy of ... then not only do the skaters have to change their choreography, but the scoring has to ... but also that judges have no prejudice or favoritism, no artistic preferences.


The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
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The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

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