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Athlete Training Principles

Principles used to Construct and Develop Training Programs
       Coaches rely on well established principles to construct training programs to enhance sport motor skills. These generally agreed upon guidelines that can consistently be applied successfully to figure skaters too.

       The following information summarizes the best recommendations from the sport scientists and generations of good coaching practices that have evolved in the sport of figure skating.

       It is advisable consider these principles as a collective body of data and not rigidity apply them them to figure skating. Experience and good judgment are essential in order to optimize the on-ice training and maximize the benefits of off-ice exercise guidelines.

      The three commonly used training principles are based on exercise physiology:

  • Specificity
  • Overload
  • Recovery

       Exercise physiology is the study of the effects of exercise on the human body. Unfortunately the principles are sometimes misapplied in sports. It is essential that coaches understand how these principles operate in sports practice and competitions.

       While it is important to know how to use these principles, skill learning, movement mechanics, and other areas that strengthen sports performance must be integrated into the training programs of athletes at their respective levels of competition. See Mental Training and Sport Biomechanics.

Principles for figure skating training include:

The Balanced Principle is a broadly applied principle that concerns achieving the right proportions of training activities.

The Individualization Principle  concerns adjustments in training based on needs of individual athletes.

Overload Principle provides guidance about training intensity and progression.

The Recovery Principle concerns rest and recovery between training bouts.

The Reversibility Principle  provides guidance about detraining when athletes stop working out.

The Specificity Principle dictates how training changes athletes' bodies to prepare for the demands of their sports.

The Transfer Principle provides guidance on how training activities can speed up sport learning and performance in competition.

The Variation Principle provides direction about training cycles that prevent problems such as plateaus and over training effects.

Recommended Reading List:

Skating Workshops

Sample Workshop Registration Application

Principles of Training Athletes

Developing Course Materials

Dallas Athletes | Multi-Sport Training and Fitness With training programs for runners and multisport athletes of all strengths and sizes, this club is filled with beginner to intermediate athletes with a "can do" attitude.

References: - Speed Training - Sports Training   Speed training is becoming crucial in an increasingly competitive sports environment, so athletes in every sport must learn the skills that produce results.

The Law of Counter Force | Team Lovato   April 21, 2011  Counter Force is an important concept in all martial arts such as jiu jitsu, boxing, and muay thai.

PPT Forces & Newton's Laws  The Law of Inertia; The Law of Acceleration; The Law of Force-Counterforce; Normal force, Tension, and friction; The vector nature of forces.

PDF Chapter 4  This chapter is about Newton's Three Laws.

The History and Philosophy of Astronomy Lecture 14: Isaac Newton July 27, 2010  Founding Father of Physics. Book 1: Basic Laws. Newton's 3rd Law of Motion: Force = Counter-force.
Training Plan for Success

The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Workshops for Athletes
Sample Workshop Registration Application
Athletic Training Principles
Beginning to Advanced Free Skating Workshops
MITF Summer Workshops
Synchronized Team Skating Workshops
On-IceWorkshop Considerations
Off-Ice Seminar Topics
On-Line Seminar Ideas
Approaches for Off-Ice Seminars
Sports Injuries
          Funding Training of Athletes
          Mental Imagery
PDF  Weekly Off-Ice Workouts
PDF  Principles of PE Fitness

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

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