The Learning Process
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Athlete Training Principles

Training Principles for athletes are well established
        It is very important that coaches base their training programs on well established training principles as the develop their training program. There are generally agreed upon guidelines that can consistently be applied successfully to all sports, including skaters.

       The following information summarizes the best recommendations from the sport scientists and generalizations good coaching practices that have evolved in the sport of figure skating.

       It is advisable consider these principles as a collective body of data and not rigidity apply them them to figure skating. Experience and good judgment are essential in order to optimize the on-ice training and maximize the benefits of off-ice exercise guidelines.

       The three commonly used training principles are based on exercise physiology:

  • Specificity
  • Overload
  • Recovery

       Exercise physiology is the study of the effects of exercise on the human body. Unfortunately the principles are sometimes misapplied in sports. It is essential that coaches understand how these principles operate in sports practice and competitions.

       While it is important to know how to use these principles, skill learning, movement mechanics, and other areas that strengthen sports performance must be integrated into the training programs of athletes at their respective levels of competition. See Mental Training and Sport Biomechanics.

Training Principles
        Training Principles for ice skating include:

The Balanced Principle is a broadly applied principle that concerns achieving the right proportions of training activities.

The Individualization Principle  concerns adjustments in training based on needs of individual athletes.

Overload Principle provides guidance about training intensity and progression.

The Recovery Principle concerns rest and recovery between training bouts.

The Reversibility Principle  provides guidance about detraining when athletes stop working out.

The Specificity Principle dictates how training changes athletes' bodies to prepare for the demands of their sports.

The Transfer Principle provides guidance on how training activities can speed up sport learning and performance in competition.

The Variation Principle provides direction about training cycles that prevent problems such as plateaus and over training effects.

Recommended Reading List:

Skating Workshops

Sample Workshop Registration Application

Principles of Training Athletes

Developing Course Materials


The Law of Counter Force | Team Lovato   April 21, 2011  Counter Force is an important concept in all martial arts such as jiu jitsu, boxing, and muay thai.

PPT Forces & Newton's Laws  The Law of Inertia; The Law of Acceleration; The Law of Force-Counterforce; Normal force, Tension, and friction; The vector nature of forces.

PDF Chapter 4  This chapter is about Newton's Three Laws.

The History and Philosophy of Astronomy Lecture 14: Isaac Newton July 27, 2010  Founding Father of Physics. Book 1: Basic Laws. Newton's 3rd Law of Motion: Force = Counter-force.

Training Plan for Success

Program Development


The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:

Training Principles for Athletes
Principles of Learning Sports
Athlete Training Principles
Sports Training for Children
Writing Goals & Objectives
Course Syllabus
Writing Quality Lesson Plans
Long Term Athlete Development

PDF  Trainability of Children
PDF  Trainability of Young Athletes
PDF  Writing Objectives

All materials are copy protected. 
The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.

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