San Diego Figure Skating Communications
a non-profit educational organization
Training Approaches to Jumping
Periodization is the act of dividing training into distinct phases each with a separate short term goal (fat loss, strength, power, speed, etc.). Each of these individual phases are designed to build on the foundation created by the previous phase until ultimately they culminate in achieving peak condition for the competition phase.
The physical requirements of a specific sport, the needs of the individual athlete, and the frequency and duration of the competition season must be factored into how a training season is split into the following subphases:
List the various reasons how jumping ability can be improved -
There is no disputing the Laws of Gravity. Skaters whose body type is slim and without much extra body fat will in theory be able to jump higher that another skater who in all other ways is the same except for their total body weight being more.
There can obviously be differences in performances between skaters who use more or less efficient technique use in jumping, design of the skate boots and blades, plus environment conditions such as: the height above sea level of the ice rink, the purity of the water, the temperature of the ice, and the air temperature in the building.
It take extra effort to launch excess body fat into the air
Losing fat and building muscle are essentially two mutually exclusive goals. Burning fat and getting rid of excess body fact requires calories restriction combined and cardio exercises. On the other hand, building muscle requires a surplus of calorie, with little to no cardio combined with heavy lifting exercises. Attempting to accomplish both objectives at the same time will fail.
In the long run, more consistent progress and greater gains will be achieved in less time by concentrating intensely on reaching one objective at a time. This type of approach should not exclusive focus on only one athletic trait at a time, to the universal exclusion of continuing general training schedule of other skills. If there is not enough available time to spend time on all the phases each day, break the schedule in two or more schedules that can alternate.
Trainers using periodization recognize the importance of specific traits and accordingly plan training programs that are designed to minimize any losses of these abilities by incorporating continued maintenance work during the other phases.The key is to identify which trait/skill you need to focus on first, then to exclusively train to eliminate or correct that deficiency. Once you have reached a certain level of proficiency, then you start training for the next requirement and so on.
Coaches exclusively use one or a combination of three different jumping approaches that are widely used to teach basic and advanced jumping skills. There is universal agreement in the admonishment that a wrapped free leg position is an error requiring a negative GOE by judges.
The skater's age, body proportions, shape, and weight affect how coaches may approach teaching jumps, especially advanced multi-revolution jumps. Body changes that occur as young skaters go through puberty can cause skaters to experience difficulty in performing advanced jumps they previously had mastered.
Note: some coaches find it acceptable for their skaters to perform skidded takeoffs, hooked
takeoffs, and landings. The IJS has rules about down grading jumps that are under rotated.
Up to, but not exceeding 1/4 revolution is considered acceptable.
Incorrect takeoff edges receive an edge alert or a edge announcement by the Technical panel in IJS.
Elapsed Air Time
The time to complete a jump can be calculated depending on the height and weight of the skater and the speed the skater has into the jump and the actual height off the ice the skater achieves.
Skaters must be aware of their core body position in the air and by understanding he details of each part of the jump from beginning to end. There are both aerodynamics and physics that combine in the technical part of jumping, but there are stamina and psychology parts to the successful jumping equation. There is huge impact on a one-eighth inch wide steel blade when landing jumps.
It takes considerable strength to control the twisting motion on their skate and lower body when attempting to land jump," The greater the number of rotations, the more the torque is transferred to the blade, boot, ankle, and knee on the landing foot.
Skaters need to learn about the theory of jumping, including correct body positions, the distribution of weight, maintaining focus, rhythm/timing, and the body lean prior to taking off, in the air, and in the landing/exit.
Gravity pulls on our body
at a force of 9.81
meters per second per
second. The complexity of Skating is due to other forces - velocity
across the ice and
centrifugal force created by the jump's spin rotation. The amount of
rotation that necessary to perform the jump must also be canceled out
to land on a controlled edge. The actual opening of the arms to cancel
the rotation must start while the skater is in the air on the downward
part of the jump.
practice strengthen the braking
action must also involve coordinate with the free leg beginning the
actual position of the free leg pushing backwards
in a controlled manner over the tracing rather then in an arc that
swings to the side combined with the skater breaking at the waist with
the free leg ending in an
in exiting a jump follows the same as path as when a skater exits from
a fast upright back scratch spin. The free leg must uncrossed, going
forward to lift over the landing/spin foot, allowing the free leg to
achieve an arc to the side prior to extending back over the tracing.
a skater does as a floor exercise should
directly with what is done on the ice. There are “off ice exercises”
jump preparations, which compliment and correspond directly to on-ice
The following internet links have been gleaned from personal communications
combined with information from public institutions and athletic organizations/
associations that have a web presence with information concerning team and
individual sports programs:
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The limited use of the materials for education purposes is allowed providing
credit is given for the source of the materials.